Application of molecular mechanics: The energy minimizationDefinitionThe energy minimization is based on the assumption that the calculated structure of a molecule can only be & 34; correct & 34; when it has the lowest potential energy. By calculating the potential energies, an optimization of a molecular model can in principle be achieved.
John Alexander Reina Newlands was an important English chemist, born in Southwark, London, in 1837. He studied the periodicity of chemical element properties. It preceded Dmitri Mendeleiev in the formulation of the Periodic Table. Studied at Royal College of Chemistry. He was an industrial chemist and worked at a sugar mill as chief chemist and wrote a treatise on sugar.
James Chadwick was a physicist, born October 20, 1891 in England. He was the one who discovered the null particle of atoms, the neutrons. He began his research on radioactivity at the University of Manchester in 1908. Ernest Rutherford was his supervisor. In 1913, he won a scholarship to work in Germany and work with Hans Geiser.
Niels Henrik David Bohr was born in Copenhagen, Denmark, on October 7, 1885. He was an important physicist who studied atomic structure and quantum physics. His father (Cristian Bohr) was a teacher and his mother was from a Jewish family. As a student, he participated in a promotion at the Copenhagen Academy of Sciences.
Otto Hahn was a chemist and was born in Frankfurt, Germany, on March 8, 1879. It was important because he studied nuclear fission and radioactivity. He graduated chemist in Munich at the University of Marburg, where he completed his doctorate in 1901 in the area of Organic Chemistry. In 1905, he discovered the radioactive radioactive isotope while working in London with Sir William Ramsay.
Gustav Robert Kirchhoff, German physicist, was born on March 12, 1824 in Berlin. He made an important contribution to science in the area of spectroscopy, blackbody radiation emission, the theory of elasticity and the formulation of thermodynamic theories. He was the son of Friedrich Kirchhoff, lawyer, and Johanna Henriette.
Aka Friedrich Hermann Hund was a German chemist and physicist born on February 4, 1896, in Karlsruhe, Germany. It was he who developed the rule that bears his name, the Hund Rule. He has done important work related to atomic structure and molecules, such as molecular orbitals. He also discovered the Quantum tunneling Principle (barrier in quantum penetration mechanics in spectrography).
Gilbert Newton Lewis was born in Weymouth, Massachusetts, October 23, 1875. He was a leading chemist who studied chemical bonds. He received a doctorate from Harvard University in 1899. In Germany, he studied at Leipzig and Göttingen. He directed the Weights and Measures office at the Governmental Laboratory in the Philippines from 1904 to 1905.
Louis Joseph Gay-Lussac was a French Enlightenment chemist and physicist born on December 6, 1778. He is known for the formulation of the gas law and also studied magnetism. Gay-Lussac dropped out of Engineering to pursue chemical research. It was supported by two great philosophers of the time, Berthollet and Laplace.
Benoit-Pierre-Émile Clapeyron was an important physicist and civil engineer, born in France on February 26, 1799. He studied thermodynamics and gases within chemistry. He attended the École Polytechnique de Paris, where he joined in 1816. Two years later, he assumed the position of Mining Engineer, where he also taught.
Louis-Victor-Pierre-Raymond, 7th Duke of Broglie, was a French physicist of a noble family born in Dieppe on August 15, 1892. He began studying History and Letters, but was influenced by his brother Maurice de Broglie, physicist. experimental experiment of the time, began to be interested in problems of physics and mathematics.
Wolfgang Ernest Pauli was born in Vienna, Austria, on April 25, 1900. He was an important physicist and worked on the theory of electron spin. Son of Wolfgang Joseph Pauli and Berta Camilla Schutz. He studied at the Doblinger Gymnasium in Vienna, graduating with honor in 1918. Two months later he published his first scientific essay on Albert Einstein's Theory of General Relativity.
Robert Boyle was born in Lismore, Ireland, on January 25, 1627. He is known for his research on gases. He studied at Eton College from 1635 to 1639. He read much about Galileo's work on a five-year European tour with a private tutor, which began in 1639 when he was only 12 years old.
Fritz Strassmann was a chemist and physicist born on February 22, 1902 in Boppard, Germany. It was important for his research in the area of radioactivity. He studied at Hanover, Technical University, and became a doctor in 1929, where he received his Ph.D. Strassmann helped develop the method of radioactive dating used in geochronology.
Robert Wilhelm Eberhard von Bunsen was a German chemist, born in Gottingen on March 31, 1811. His main recognition is the Bunsen burner, a burner that he perfected and which was invented by physicist Michael Faraday. Worked with spectral emissions of heated elements. Bunsen was the youngest son of four brothers.
Alexandre-Émile Béguyer de Chancourtois was a geologist born in Paris, France, on January 20, 1820. His main contribution was to observe the periodicity of the chemical elements. It was one of the first to classify the elements and thus form a periodic table. Son of Louis Aimé César Béguyer de Chancourtois and Amélie Louise Clerget, he attended the Polytechnic (1838) and the School des Mines de Paris.
Cato Maximilian Guldberg was a Norwegian-born Christian chemist and mathematician, now Oslo. He was born in the year 1836. He formulated with his brother-in-law Peter Waage the chemical law of mass action as a function of the speed and concentration of reagents, determining whether this reaction would be reversible in terms of reagent concentrations.
Jöns Jacob Berzelius was a leading organic chemist, born in Stockholm, Sweden, on August 20, 1779. He was one of the founders of modern chemistry and introduced new fundamental concepts. He was a doctor, teacher, pharmacist and botanist. He was the son of a Lutheran pastor and principal of a primary school.
Johannes Nicolaus Bronsted was a chemist born in Varde, Denmark, on February 22, 1879, who developed a new theory for acids and bases. He was the son of a civil engineer. Lost your mother at birth. His father remarried but died when Bronsted was 14 years old. Overcome his childhood and traumatic adolescence, studied at the Polytechnic Institute of Copenhagen.
Over time, various personalities contributed to the development of chemistry. In this section, we present biographies of the most famous chemists in history. Click on the desired name to read the biography. Arrhenius Avogadro Berzelius Bohr Boyle Bronsted Bunsen Chadwick Chancourtois Clapeyron Daniell From Broglie Democritus Dobereiner Fritz Strassmann Gay-Lussac Guldberg Heisenberg Hess Jacques Charles John Dalton Kekulé Kirchhoff Lavoisier Le Chatelier Lewis Prusson Lowlands Luigi Paul Gould Guldberg Hahn Pauli Rutherford Seaborg Thomson Van der Waals Waage
Lorenzo Romano Amedeo Carlo Avogadro, the Count of Quaregna and Cerreto, born in Turin, Italy, on August 9, 1776, was an Italian lawyer, chemist and physicist who distinguished atom from molecule. His father Count Fellipo Avogadro was an important lawyer and was elected president of the Piedmont Senate in 1779.