Chemistry

Basics of heterogeneous reactors

Basics of heterogeneous reactors


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Classification according to operating modes

The division of reactors according to the mode of operation takes place in three categories:

  • discontinuous mode of operation
  • continuous operation
  • semi-continuous operation

In the discontinuous mode of operation, all starting substances are added to the reactor at the beginning. During the reaction time, neither starting material is added nor product is removed. After the reaction time has elapsed, the entire reaction mass is removed from the reactor and a new reaction cycle is prepared.

In the continuous mode of operation, starting material is continuously fed into the reactor and at the same time product is discharged from the reactor.

In the semi-continuous mode of operation, some of the reactants are initially introduced into the reactor. During the reaction time either an educt component is constantly added or product is withdrawn.


Nuclear reactor

Nuclear reactor, central component of a nuclear power plant, in which the actual fission process & # 223 takes place. One distinguishes between thermal (slow) and fast Reactors, the distinction being based on the energy of the neutrons contributing to the fission. In thermal reactors with neutron energies of approx. 0.025 eV, slightly enriched uranium with a U 235 content of around 3% usually acts as fuel, whereas in the fast reactor with neutron energies of typically 80 keV, because of the small fission cross-section, energies of this kind are used high enrichment of the U 235 content is required. In fast reactors there is also a high probability of conversion by neutron capture of U 238 nuclei to plutonium, which in turn can be used as nuclear fuel (fast broker). Thermal reactors require a moderator to slow down the neutrons released during fission. A distinction is made between graphite and light or heavy water moderated reactors. Either inert gases or water are used for cooling. In recent times, however, light-water-moderated reactors (light-water reactors) dominate in commercial use, a distinction being made between boiling water reactors and pressurized water reactors. The high-temperature reactor is a newer variant of a graphite-moderated reactor. The (fast) breeder reactor makes use of the fact that fast neutrons (E. On the one hand, they efficiently split plutonium (Pu 239), on the other hand, they can generate new fissile material through capture in U 238 cores (breeding mechanism). The recovered plutonium can be separated together with the unused uranium in a reprocessing plant and reused. The reprocessing process is, however, not without problems from an ecological point of view. (Nuclear power plant, energy technology)

Nuclear reactor: & # 220overview & # 252 of different types of nuclear reactors. PWR: pressurized water reactor, BWR: boiling water reactor, HWR: heavy water reactor, GGR: gas-cooled graphite-moderated reactor, AGR: advanced gas-cooled reactor, HTR: high-temperature reactor, LWGR: water-cooled graphite-moderated reactor, BR: breeder reactor.

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Staff Volumes I and II

Silvia Barnert
Dr. Matthias Delbrück
Dr. Reinald ice cream
Natalie Fischer
Walter Greulich (editor)
Carsten Heinisch
Sonja Nagel
Dr. Gunnar Radons
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Dr. Joachim Schüller

Christine Weber
Ulrich Kilian

The author's abbreviation is in square brackets, the number in round brackets is the subject area number, a list of subject areas can be found in the foreword.

Katja Bammel, Berlin [KB2] (A) (13)
Prof. Dr. W. Bauhofer, Hamburg (B) (20, 22)
Sabine Baumann, Heidelberg [SB] (A) (26)
Dr. Günther Beikert, Viernheim [GB1] (A) (04, 10, 25)
Prof. Dr. Hans Berckhemer, Frankfurt [HB1] (A, B) (29)
Prof. Dr. Klaus Bethge, Frankfurt (B) (18)
Prof. Tamás S. Biró, Budapest [TB2] (A) (15)
Dr. Thomas Bührke, Leimen [TB] (A) (32)
Angela Burchard, Geneva [AB] (A) (20, 22)
Dr. Matthias Delbrück, Dossenheim [MD] (A) (12, 24, 29)
Dr. Wolfgang Eisenberg, Leipzig [WE] (A) (15)
Dr. Frank Eisenhaber, Heidelberg [FE] (A) (27 Essay Biophysics)
Dr. Roger Erb, Kassel [RE1] (A) (33)
Dr. Angelika Fallert-Müller, Groß-Zimmer [AFM] (A) (16, 26)
Dr. Andreas Faulstich, Oberkochen [AF4] (A) (Essay Adaptive Optics)
Prof. Dr. Rudolf Feile, Darmstadt (B) (20, 22)
Stephan Fichtner, Dossenheim [SF] (A) (31)
Dr. Thomas Filk, Freiburg [TF3] (A) (10, 15)
Natalie Fischer, Dossenheim [NF] (A) (32)
Prof. Dr. Klaus Fredenhagen, Hamburg [KF2] (A) (Essay Algebraic Quantum Field Theory)
Thomas Fuhrmann, Heidelberg [TF1] (A) (14)
Christian Fulda, Heidelberg [CF] (A) (07)
Frank Gabler, Frankfurt [FG1] (A) (22 essay data processing systems for future high-energy and heavy-ion experiments)
Dr. Harald Genz, Darmstadt [HG1] (A) (18)
Michael Gerding, Kühlungsborn [MG2] (A) (13)
Andrea Greiner, Heidelberg [AG1] (A) (06)
Uwe Grigoleit, Göttingen [UG] (A) (13)
Prof. Dr. Michael Grodzicki, Salzburg [MG1] (A, B) (01, 16 essay density functional theory)
Prof. Dr. Hellmut Haberland, Freiburg [HH4] (A) (Essay Cluster Physics)
Dr. Andreas Heilmann, Chemnitz [AH1] (A) (20, 21)
Carsten Heinisch, Kaiserslautern [CH] (A) (03)
Dr. Hermann Hinsch, Heidelberg [HH2] (A) (22)
Jens Hoerner, Hanover [JH] (A) (20)
Dr. Dieter Hoffmann, Berlin [DH2] (A, B) (02)
Renate Jerecic, Heidelberg [RJ] (A) (28)
Dr. Ulrich Kilian, Hamburg [UK] (A) (19)
Thomas Kluge, Mainz [TK] (A) (20)
Achim Knoll, Strasbourg [AK1] (A) (20)
Andreas Kohlmann, Heidelberg [AK2] (A) (29)
Dr. Barbara Kopff, Heidelberg [BK2] (A) (26)
Dr. Bernd Krause, Karlsruhe [BK1] (A) (19)
Ralph Kühnle, Heidelberg [RK1] (A) (05)
Dr. Andreas Markwitz, Dresden [AM1] (A) (21)
Holger Mathiszik, Bensheim [HM3] (A) (29)
Mathias Mertens, Mainz [MM1] (A) (15)
Dr. Dirk Metzger, Mannheim [DM] (A) (07)
Dr. Rudi Michalak, Warwick, UK [RM1] (A) (23)
Helmut Milde, Dresden [HM1] (A) (09 Essay Acoustics)
Guenter Milde, Dresden [GM1] (A) (12)
Maritha Milde, Dresden [MM2] (A) (12)
Dr. Christopher Monroe, Boulder, USA [CM] (A) (Essay Atom and Ion Traps)
Dr. Andreas Müller, Kiel [AM2] (A) (33 Essay Everyday Physics)
Dr. Nikolaus Nestle, Regensburg [NN] (A) (05)
Dr. Thomas Otto, Geneva [TO] (A) (06 Essay Analytical Mechanics)
Prof. Dr. Harry Paul, Berlin [HP] (A) (13)
Cand. Phys. Christof Pflumm, Karlsruhe [CP] (A) (06, 08)
Prof. Dr. Ulrich Platt, Heidelberg [UP] (A) (Essay Atmosphere)
Dr. Oliver Probst, Monterrey, Mexico [OP] (A) (30)
Dr. Roland Andreas Puntigam, Munich [RAP] (A) (14 Essay General Theory of Relativity)
Dr. Gunnar Radons, Mannheim [GR1] (A) (01, 02, 32)
Prof. Dr. Günter Radons, Stuttgart [GR2] (A) (11)
Oliver Rattunde, Freiburg [OR2] (A) (16 essay cluster physics)
Dr. Karl-Henning Rehren, Göttingen [KHR] (A) (Essay Algebraic Quantum Field Theory)
Ingrid Reiser, Manhattan, USA [IR] (A) (16)
Dr. Uwe Renner, Leipzig [UR] (A) (10)
Dr. Ursula Resch-Esser, Berlin [URE] (A) (21)
Prof. Dr. Hermann Rietschel, Karlsruhe [HR1] (A, B) (23)
Dr. Peter Oliver Roll, Mainz [OR1] (A, B) (04, 15 essay distributions)
Hans-Jörg Rutsch, Heidelberg [HJR] (A) (29)
Dr. Margit Sarstedt, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK [MS2] (A) (25)
Rolf Sauermost, Waldkirch [RS1] (A) (02)
Prof. Dr. Arthur Scharmann, Giessen (B) (06, 20)
Dr. Arne Schirrmacher, Munich [AS5] (A) (02)
Christina Schmitt, Freiburg [CS] (A) (16)
Cand. Phys. Jörg Schuler, Karlsruhe [JS1] (A) (06, 08)
Dr. Joachim Schüller, Mainz [JS2] (A) (10 essay analytical mechanics)
Prof. Dr. Heinz-Georg Schuster, Kiel [HGS] (A, B) (11 essay Chaos)
Richard Schwalbach, Mainz [RS2] (A) (17)
Prof. Dr. Klaus Stierstadt, Munich [KS] (A, B) (07, 20)
Cornelius Suchy, Brussels [CS2] (A) (20)
William J. Thompson, Chapel Hill, USA [WYD] (A) (Essay Computers in Physics)
Dr. Thomas Volkmann, Cologne [TV] (A) (20)
Dipl.-Geophys. Rolf vom Stein, Cologne [RVS] (A) (29)
Patrick Voss-de Haan, Mainz [PVDH] (A) (17)
Thomas Wagner, Heidelberg [TW2] (A) (29 essay atmosphere)
Manfred Weber, Frankfurt [MW1] (A) (28)
Markus Wenke, Heidelberg [MW3] (A) (15)
Prof. Dr. David Wineland, Boulder, USA [DW] (A) (Essay Atom and Ion Traps)
Dr. Harald Wirth, Saint Genis-Pouilly, F [HW1] (A) (20) Steffen Wolf, Freiburg [SW] (A) (16)
Dr. Michael Zillgitt, Frankfurt [MZ] (A) (02)
Prof. Dr. Helmut Zimmermann, Jena [HZ] (A) (32)
Dr. Kai Zuber, Dortmund [KZ] (A) (19)

Dr. Ulrich Kilian (responsible)
Christine Weber

Priv.-Doz. Dr. Dieter Hoffmann, Berlin

The author's abbreviation is in square brackets, the number in round brackets is the subject area number, a list of subject areas can be found in the foreword.

Markus Aspelmeyer, Munich [MA1] (A) (20)
Dr. Katja Bammel, Cagliari, I [KB2] (A) (13)
Doz. Hans-Georg Bartel, Berlin [HGB] (A) (02)
Steffen Bauer, Karlsruhe [SB2] (A) (20, 22)
Dr. Günther Beikert, Viernheim [GB1] (A) (04, 10, 25)
Prof. Dr. Hans Berckhemer, Frankfurt [HB1] (A, B) (29)
Dr. Werner Biberacher, Garching [WB] (B) (20)
Prof. Tamás S. Biró, Budapest [TB2] (A) (15)
Prof. Dr. Helmut Bokemeyer, Darmstadt [HB2] (A, B) (18)
Dr. Ulf Borgeest, Hamburg [UB2] (A) (Essay Quasars)
Dr. Thomas Bührke, Leimen [TB] (A) (32)
Jochen Büttner, Berlin [JB] (A) (02)
Dr. Matthias Delbrück, Dossenheim [MD] (A) (12, 24, 29)
Karl Eberl, Stuttgart [KE] (A) (essay molecular beam epitaxy)
Dr. Dietrich Einzel, Garching [DE] (A) (20)
Dr. Wolfgang Eisenberg, Leipzig [WE] (A) (15)
Dr. Frank Eisenhaber, Vienna [FE] (A) (27)
Dr. Roger Erb, Kassel [RE1] (A) (33 essay Optical phenomena in the atmosphere)
Dr. Christian Eurich, Bremen [CE] (A) (Essay Neural Networks)
Dr. Angelika Fallert-Müller, Groß-Zimmer [AFM] (A) (16, 26)
Stephan Fichtner, Heidelberg [SF] (A) (31)
Dr. Thomas Filk, Freiburg [TF3] (A) (10, 15 essay percolation theory)
Natalie Fischer, Walldorf [NF] (A) (32)
Dr. Harald Fuchs, Münster [HF] (A) (Essay scanning probe microscopy)
Dr. Thomas Fuhrmann, Mannheim [TF1] (A) (14)
Christian Fulda, Hanover [CF] (A) (07)
Dr. Harald Genz, Darmstadt [HG1] (A) (18)
Michael Gerding, Kühlungsborn [MG2] (A) (13)
Prof. Dr. Gerd Graßhoff, Bern [GG] (A) (02)
Andrea Greiner, Heidelberg [AG1] (A) (06)
Uwe Grigoleit, Weinheim [UG] (A) (13)
Prof. Dr. Michael Grodzicki, Salzburg [MG1] (B) (01, 16)
Gunther Hadwich, Munich [GH] (A) (20)
Dr. Andreas Heilmann, Halle [AH1] (A) (20, 21)
Carsten Heinisch, Kaiserslautern [CH] (A) (03)
Dr. Christoph Heinze, Hamburg [CH3] (A) (29)
Dr. Marc Hemberger, Heidelberg [MH2] (A) (19)
Florian Herold, Munich [FH] (A) (20)
Dr. Hermann Hinsch, Heidelberg [HH2] (A) (22)
Priv.-Doz. Dr. Dieter Hoffmann, Berlin [DH2] (A, B) (02)
Dr. Georg Hoffmann, Gif-sur-Yvette, FR [GH1] (A) (29)
Dr. Gert Jacobi, Hamburg [GJ] (B) (09)
Renate Jerecic, Heidelberg [RJ] (A) (28)
Dr. Catherine Journet, Stuttgart [CJ] (A) (Essay nanotubes)
Prof. Dr. Josef Kallrath, Ludwigshafen, [JK] (A) (04 Essay Numerical Methods in Physics)
Priv.-Doz. Dr. Claus Kiefer, Freiburg [CK] (A) (14, 15 Essay Quantum Gravity)
Richard Kilian, Wiesbaden [RK3] (22)
Dr. Ulrich Kilian, Heidelberg [UK] (A) (19)
Dr. Uwe Klemradt, Munich [UK1] (A) (20, essay phase transitions and critical phenomena)
Dr. Achim Knoll, Karlsruhe [AK1] (A) (20)
Dr. Alexei Kojevnikov, College Park, USA [AK3] (A) (02)
Dr. Berndt Koslowski, Ulm [BK] (A) (Essay Surface and Interface Physics)
Dr. Bernd Krause, Munich [BK1] (A) (19)
Dr. Jens Kreisel, Grenoble [JK2] (A) (20)
Dr. Gero Kube, Mainz [GK] (A) (18)
Ralph Kühnle, Heidelberg [RK1] (A) (05)
Volker Lauff, Magdeburg [VL] (A) (04)
Priv.-Doz. Dr. Axel Lorke, Munich [AL] (A) (20)
Dr. Andreas Markwitz, Lower Hutt, NZ [AM1] (A) (21)
Holger Mathiszik, Celle [HM3] (A) (29)
Dr. Dirk Metzger, Mannheim [DM] (A) (07)
Prof. Dr. Karl von Meyenn, Munich [KVM] (A) (02)
Dr. Rudi Michalak, Augsburg [RM1] (A) (23)
Helmut Milde, Dresden [HM1] (A) (09)
Günter Milde, Dresden [GM1] (A) (12)
Marita Milde, Dresden [MM2] (A) (12)
Dr. Andreas Müller, Kiel [AM2] (A) (33)
Dr. Nikolaus Nestle, Leipzig [NN] (A, B) (05, 20 essays molecular beam epitaxy, surface and interface physics and scanning probe microscopy)
Dr. Thomas Otto, Geneva [TO] (A) (06)
Dr. Ulrich Parlitz, Göttingen [UP1] (A) (11)
Christof Pflumm, Karlsruhe [CP] (A) (06, 08)
Dr. Oliver Probst, Monterrey, Mexico [OP] (A) (30)
Dr. Roland Andreas Puntigam, Munich [RAP] (A) (14)
Dr. Andrea Quintel, Stuttgart [AQ] (A) (Essay nanotubes)
Dr. Gunnar Radons, Mannheim [GR1] (A) (01, 02, 32)
Dr. Max Rauner, Weinheim [MR3] (A) (15 Essay Quantum Informatics)
Robert Raussendorf, Munich [RR1] (A) (19)
Ingrid Reiser, Manhattan, USA [IR] (A) (16)
Dr. Uwe Renner, Leipzig [UR] (A) (10)
Dr. Ursula Resch-Esser, Berlin [URE] (A) (21)
Dr. Peter Oliver Roll, Ingelheim [OR1] (A, B) (15 essay quantum mechanics and its interpretations)
Prof. Dr. Siegmar Roth, Stuttgart [SR] (A) (Essay nanotubes)
Hans-Jörg Rutsch, Walldorf [HJR] (A) (29)
Dr. Margit Sarstedt, Leuven, B [MS2] (A) (25)
Rolf Sauermost, Waldkirch [RS1] (A) (02)
Matthias Schemmel, Berlin [MS4] (A) (02)
Michael Schmid, Stuttgart [MS5] (A) (Essay nanotubes)
Dr. Martin Schön, Constance [MS] (A) (14)
Jörg Schuler, Taunusstein [JS1] (A) (06, 08)
Dr. Joachim Schüller, Dossenheim [JS2] (A) (10)
Richard Schwalbach, Mainz [RS2] (A) (17)
Prof. Dr. Paul Steinhardt, Princeton, USA [PS] (A) (Essay quasicrystals and quasi-unit cells)
Prof. Dr. Klaus Stierstadt, Munich [KS] (B)
Dr. Siegmund Stintzing, Munich [SS1] (A) (22)
Cornelius Suchy, Brussels [CS2] (A) (20)
Dr. Volker Theileis, Munich [VT] (A) (20)
Prof. Dr. Gerald 't Hooft, Utrecht, NL [GT2] (A) (essay renormalization)
Dr. Annette Vogt, Berlin [AV] (A) (02)
Dr. Thomas Volkmann, Cologne [TV] (A) (20)
Rolf vom Stein, Cologne [RVS] (A) (29)
Patrick Voss-de Haan, Mainz [PVDH] (A) (17)
Dr. Thomas Wagner, Heidelberg [TW2] (A) (29)
Dr. Hildegard Wasmuth-Fries, Ludwigshafen [HWF] (A) (26)
Manfred Weber, Frankfurt [MW1] (A) (28)
Priv.-Doz. Dr. Burghard Weiss, Lübeck [BW2] (A) (02)
Prof. Dr. Klaus Winter, Berlin [KW] (A) (essay neutrino physics)
Dr. Achim Wixforth, Munich [AW1] (A) (20)
Dr. Steffen Wolf, Berkeley, USA [SW] (A) (16)
Priv.-Doz. Dr. Jochen Wosnitza, Karlsruhe [JW] (A) (23 essay organic superconductors)
Priv.-Doz. Dr. Jörg Zegenhagen, Stuttgart [JZ3] (A) (21 essay surface reconstructions)
Dr. Kai Zuber, Dortmund [KZ] (A) (19)
Dr. Werner Zwerger, Munich [WZ] (A) (20)

Dr. Ulrich Kilian (responsible)
Christine Weber

Priv.-Doz. Dr. Dieter Hoffmann, Berlin

The author's abbreviation is in square brackets, the number in round brackets is the subject area number, a list of subject areas can be found in the foreword.

Prof. Dr. Klaus Andres, Garching [KA] (A) (10)
Markus Aspelmeyer, Munich [MA1] (A) (20)
Dr. Katja Bammel, Cagliari, I [KB2] (A) (13)
Doz. Hans-Georg Bartel, Berlin [HGB] (A) (02)
Steffen Bauer, Karlsruhe [SB2] (A) (20, 22)
Dr. Günther Beikert, Viernheim [GB1] (A) (04, 10, 25)
Prof. Dr. Hans Berckhemer, Frankfurt [HB1] (A, B) (29 Essay Seismology)
Dr. Werner Biberacher, Garching [WB] (B) (20)
Prof. Tamás S. Biró, Budapest [TB2] (A) (15)
Prof. Dr. Helmut Bokemeyer, Darmstadt [HB2] (A, B) (18)
Dr. Thomas Bührke, Leimen [TB] (A) (32)
Jochen Büttner, Berlin [JB] (A) (02)
Dr. Matthias Delbrück, Dossenheim [MD] (A) (12, 24, 29)
Prof. Dr. Martin Dressel, Stuttgart (A) (essay spin density waves)
Dr. Michael Eckert, Munich [ME] (A) (02)
Dr. Dietrich Einzel, Garching (A) (essay superconductivity and superfluidity)
Dr. Wolfgang Eisenberg, Leipzig [WE] (A) (15)
Dr. Frank Eisenhaber, Vienna [FE] (A) (27)
Dr. Roger Erb, Kassel [RE1] (A) (33)
Dr. Angelika Fallert-Müller, Groß-Zimmer [AFM] (A) (16, 26)
Stephan Fichtner, Heidelberg [SF] (A) (31)
Dr. Thomas Filk, Freiburg [TF3] (A) (10, 15)
Natalie Fischer, Walldorf [NF] (A) (32)
Dr. Thomas Fuhrmann, Mannheim [TF1] (A) (14)
Christian Fulda, Hanover [CF] (A) (07)
Frank Gabler, Frankfurt [FG1] (A) (22)
Dr. Harald Genz, Darmstadt [HG1] (A) (18)
Prof. Dr. Henning Genz, Karlsruhe [HG2] (A) (Essays Symmetry and Vacuum)
Dr. Michael Gerding, Potsdam [MG2] (A) (13)
Andrea Greiner, Heidelberg [AG1] (A) (06)
Uwe Grigoleit, Weinheim [UG] (A) (13)
Gunther Hadwich, Munich [GH] (A) (20)
Dr. Andreas Heilmann, Halle [AH1] (A) (20, 21)
Carsten Heinisch, Kaiserslautern [CH] (A) (03)
Dr. Marc Hemberger, Heidelberg [MH2] (A) (19)
Dr. Sascha Hilgenfeldt, Cambridge, USA (A) (essay sonoluminescence)
Dr. Hermann Hinsch, Heidelberg [HH2] (A) (22)
Priv.-Doz. Dr. Dieter Hoffmann, Berlin [DH2] (A, B) (02)
Dr. Gert Jacobi, Hamburg [GJ] (B) (09)
Renate Jerecic, Heidelberg [RJ] (A) (28)
Prof. Dr. Josef Kallrath, Ludwigshafen [JK] (A) (04)
Priv.-Doz. Dr. Claus Kiefer, Freiburg [CK] (A) (14, 15)
Richard Kilian, Wiesbaden [RK3] (22)
Dr. Ulrich Kilian, Heidelberg [UK] (A) (19)
Thomas Kluge, Jülich [TK] (A) (20)
Dr. Achim Knoll, Karlsruhe [AK1] (A) (20)
Dr. Alexei Kojevnikov, College Park, USA [AK3] (A) (02)
Dr. Bernd Krause, Munich [BK1] (A) (19)
Dr. Gero Kube, Mainz [GK] (A) (18)
Ralph Kühnle, Heidelberg [RK1] (A) (05)
Volker Lauff, Magdeburg [VL] (A) (04)
Dr. Anton Lerf, Garching [AL1] (A) (23)
Dr. Detlef Lohse, Twente, NL (A) (essay sonoluminescence)
Priv.-Doz. Dr. Axel Lorke, Munich [AL] (A) (20)
Prof. Dr. Jan Louis, Halle (A) (essay string theory)
Dr. Andreas Markwitz, Lower Hutt, NZ [AM1] (A) (21)
Holger Mathiszik, Celle [HM3] (A) (29)
Dr. Dirk Metzger, Mannheim [DM] (A) (07)
Dr. Rudi Michalak, Dresden [RM1] (A) (23 essay low temperature physics)
Günter Milde, Dresden [GM1] (A) (12)
Helmut Milde, Dresden [HM1] (A) (09)
Marita Milde, Dresden [MM2] (A) (12)
Prof. Dr. Andreas Müller, Trier [AM2] (A) (33)
Prof. Dr. Karl Otto Münnich, Heidelberg (A) (Essay Environmental Physics)
Dr. Nikolaus Nestle, Leipzig [NN] (A, B) (05, 20)
Dr. Thomas Otto, Geneva [TO] (A) (06)
Priv.-Doz. Dr. Ulrich Parlitz, Göttingen [UP1] (A) (11)
Christof Pflumm, Karlsruhe [CP] (A) (06, 08)
Dr. Oliver Probst, Monterrey, Mexico [OP] (A) (30)
Dr. Roland Andreas Puntigam, Munich [RAP] (A) (14)
Dr. Gunnar Radons, Mannheim [GR1] (A) (01, 02, 32)
Dr. Max Rauner, Weinheim [MR3] (A) (15)
Robert Raussendorf, Munich [RR1] (A) (19)
Ingrid Reiser, Manhattan, USA [IR] (A) (16)
Dr. Uwe Renner, Leipzig [UR] (A) (10)
Dr. Ursula Resch-Esser, Berlin [URE] (A) (21)
Dr. Peter Oliver Roll, Ingelheim [OR1] (A, B) (15)
Hans-Jörg Rutsch, Walldorf [HJR] (A) (29)
Rolf Sauermost, Waldkirch [RS1] (A) (02)
Matthias Schemmel, Berlin [MS4] (A) (02)
Prof. Dr. Erhard Scholz, Wuppertal [ES] (A) (02)
Dr. Martin Schön, Konstanz [MS] (A) (14 essay special theory of relativity)
Dr. Erwin Schuberth, Garching [ES4] (A) (23)
Jörg Schuler, Taunusstein [JS1] (A) (06, 08)
Dr. Joachim Schüller, Dossenheim [JS2] (A) (10)
Richard Schwalbach, Mainz [RS2] (A) (17)
Prof. Dr. Klaus Stierstadt, Munich [KS] (B)
Dr. Siegmund Stintzing, Munich [SS1] (A) (22)
Dr. Berthold Suchan, Giessen [BS] (A) (Essay Philosophy of Science)
Cornelius Suchy, Brussels [CS2] (A) (20)
Dr. Volker Theileis, Munich [VT] (A) (20)
Prof. Dr. Stefan Theisen, Munich (A) (essay string theory)
Dr. Annette Vogt, Berlin [AV] (A) (02)
Dr. Thomas Volkmann, Cologne [TV] (A) (20)
Rolf vom Stein, Cologne [RVS] (A) (29)
Dr. Patrick Voss-de Haan, Mainz [PVDH] (A) (17)
Dr. Thomas Wagner, Heidelberg [TW2] (A) (29)
Manfred Weber, Frankfurt [MW1] (A) (28)
Dr. Martin Werner, Hamburg [MW] (A) (29)
Dr. Achim Wixforth, Munich [AW1] (A) (20)
Dr. Steffen Wolf, Berkeley, USA [SW] (A) (16)
Dr. Stefan L. Wolff, Munich [SW1] (A) (02)
Priv.-Doz. Dr. Jochen Wosnitza, Karlsruhe [JW] (A) (23)
Dr. Kai Zuber, Dortmund [KZ] (A) (19)
Dr. Werner Zwerger, Munich [WZ] (A) (20)

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Basic information

MW0884 is a semester module in English language at Bachelor’s level and Master’s level which is offered in summer semester.

This module is included in the following catalogs within the study programs in physics.

Content, Learning Outcome and Preconditions

Content

The lecture provides an introduction to the basic mathematical models and technical concepts that are used in the design of nuclear systems and their safety assessment.

Lectures and exercises will be held separately

Focus of the lecture:
The lecture serves as an introduction to:

- Basics for the design and analysis of the
Neutron behavior
- Concepts and use of cross sections
(cross sections)
- Modeling of the neutron behavior in the reactor
- Dynamics models for the nuclear reactor
- Basics of thermo-hydraulic design and analysis
- Thermal and hydrodynamic description of a
Nuclear reactor
- Introduction to research and industry relevant
Computer models

- Basics of radioactivity and radiation shielding
- decay models
- Basic principles of radioactive protection and the
radioactive shield
- Basics of modern light water reactor technology
- Components of a modern nuclear power plant
- Introduction to the safety analysis of nuclear systems

The aim of the lecture is to equip the student with a basic knowledge of the mathematical and technical interrelationships of a nuclear system. From the point of view of an engineer, the topics and content are intended to provide the information necessary to understand how a nuclear system works.
Exercises, problems and seminars will round off the theory. The actual application of the important topics presented in the lecture is illustrated using numerical examples.

If time and opportunity allow, excursions to some subject-related facilities and facilities are planned.

The course will present the fundamental physical concepts and mathematical models used in nuclear engineering.
The objective is to provide the necessary information and make use of it in the solution
of practical exercises to be able to understand:

Main topics:
- Fundamental concepts of nuclear reactor design
- The physics of nuclear reactions
- The mathematical and physical models used to describe the
behavior of nuclear reactors
- The models utilized to design and analyze the thermal behavior
of nuclear reactors
- Basic concepts of radiation and radiation protection
- Fundamental concepts of radiation shielding
- The fundamentals of Nuclear Power Reactor Technology

Learning outcome

At the end of the module, students will be able to understand:

The technology and design basics of:

* Nuclear reactors
* Thermal-hydraulic behavior of nuclear reactors
* Radiation protection

Preconditions

The lecture is aimed at:
Students from mechanical engineering, physics and chemistry from the fourth semester onwards who want to learn more about the technical basics of the design and safety analysis of nuclear systems.

Lecture language:
The lecture will be held in English. Most of the lecture materials are also in English, but questions can also be asked in German during the lecture and the exam can be taken in German.

Courses, Learning and Teaching Methods and Literature

Courses and Schedule

Learning and Teaching Methods

- Lecture with PowerPoint material (presentations)

- intensive use of the board to explain the concepts

Interactive class:
Students are encouraged to ask questions, and the professor asks the students frequently as well

Media

Literature

Nuclear Reactor Analysis
J.J.Deuderstadt, L.J. Hamilton

Fundamentals of Nuclear Science and Energy,
J.K. Shultis, R.E. Faw

Introduction to Nuclear Engineering,
J.R. Lamarsh and A.J. Baratta

Nuclear Energy - Principles, Practices and Prospects
D. Bodansky

Module Exam

Description of exams and course work

Exam repetition

There is a possibility to take the exam in the following semester.

Current exam dates

Currently TUMonline lists the following exam dates. In addition to the general information above please refer to the current information given during the course.

Title
TimeLocationinfoRegistration
Fundamentals of Nuclear Engineering
Thu, 2021-07-22, 14:15 till 15:45 MW: 1550
import till 2021-06-30 (cancellation of registration till 2021-07-08)

Condensed matter

When atoms interact things can get interesting. Fundamental research on the underlying properties of materials and nanostructures and exploration of the potential they provide for applications.

Nuclei, Particles, Astrophysics

A journey of discovery to understanding our world at the subatomic scale, from the nuclei inside atoms down to the most elementary building blocks of matter. Are you ready for the adventure?

Biophysics

Biological systems, from proteins to living cells and organisms, obey physical principles. Our research groups in biophysics shape one of Germany's largest scientific clusters in this area.


Microprocess engineering

With the advancing miniaturization of technical procedures and processes - see nanotechnology, lab-on-a-chip, etc. - research into processes in the micro and nano range and their technical implementation is playing an ever greater role. Microprocess engineering as a technically oriented sub-area of ​​chemistry and physics treats chemical and physical processes in theory and practice that take place within small and extremely small volumes.

The development of micro-process engineering began around the 1980s when mechanical micro-machining processes in the form of compact heat exchangers for the extraction of uranium isotopes were used at the Karlsruhe Research Center for the first time. In the course of time, various microstructured reactors - in short: microreactors - have been developed which have, among other things, the very good heat transfer due to the large surface-to-volume ratio and the very good mass transfer as unique advantages.

The good heat transfer properties enable precise temperature control of the reactions. For example, strongly exothermic reactions can be carried out almost isothermally if the microreactor contains a second set of microchannels which work as cooling channels with corresponding cooling fluids and which are separated from the reaction channels. In addition, it is possible to change the temperature of a microreactor very quickly in order to achieve a targeted non-isothermal behavior.

Microprocess engineering also allows efficient mixing of the reactants in very short times, typically in the millisecond range.

The aim of micro process engineering is definitely the manufacture of chemical products. Conventional batch processes, i.e. manufacturing methods in which the products are manufactured in a specific quantity within a certain period of time, initially appear to be better suited for this in terms of the quantity. In fact, however, microprocess engineering production takes place in a flow through a microreactor or, better still, through a series of reaction chambers: While the dimensions of the individual channels are small, a special device for microprocess engineering - the microstructured reactor - can contain many thousands of such channels and a total size of several meters reach. The goal of micro process engineering is primarily not only the miniaturization of production systems, but above all increasing the yields and selectivities of chemical reactions and thus lowering the costs of chemical production.

As a result, the throughput is high enough to turn microprocess engineering into a tool for chemical production.

The sub-area of ​​microprocess engineering that deals with chemical reactions that are carried out in microreactors is also known as microreaction technology.

Below are some external sources of information that provide further information and offers on microprocess engineering. The respective site operators are responsible for their content!


Basics of heterogeneous reactors - chemistry and physics

Search for lecturers
Mathematics preliminary course
Lecturer: apl. Prof. Dr. Oliver M & uumllken
Time: Block event all day, before the beginning of the lectures: 06.-10. October 2014
Lecture: daily 9-12
Exercises: afternoons 14-17 in groups
Location: Gr. HS

  • Glasses, The math toolbox, Elsevier (2006)
  • Booklet, preliminary mathematical course, Elsevier (2006)
  • Korsch, Mathematics preliminary course, Binomi Verlag (2004)
  • Weltner, Mathematics for physicists (12th edition), Springer (2001)
  • Kinematics of the mass point and Newtonian mechanics
  • Mechanics of rigid and deformable bodies
  • Vibrations and waves
  • Gases and liquids
  • Thermal theory

School Physics and Mathematics

  • Gerthsen, physics, Springer-Verlag
  • Tipler, physics, Spektrum Verlag
  • W. Demtr & oumlder, Experimental Physics 1, Mechanics and Heat, Springer-Verlag

The event teaches the basics of advanced optics, an introduction to quantum mechanics, and the structure of simple atomic systems. The lecture is accompanied by exercises. Participation in the exercises is essential for understanding the lecture.

The following topics are covered:
- Geometric optics
- wave optics
- Introduction to quantum physics

Experimental Physics I + II, Theoretical Physics I + II

Experimental Physics V
Lecturer: Prof. Dr. Karl Jakobs
Time: 4 hours, Tue, Wed 10-12
Location: HS II
Start: October 21, 2014
Environment: 2 hours, by arrangement

This course covers the basics of nuclear and elementary particle physics.
Participation in the lecture is a prerequisite for participation in the second part of the advanced internship.

  • Properties of stable atomic nuclei
  • Disintegrate unstable nuclei
  • Scattering problems
  • Core models
  • Introduction to elementary particles
  • Symmetries and interactions
  • The quark model
  • Electromagnetic interaction
  • Quantum chromodynamics
  • Electroweak interaction
  • Latest results from the LHC
  • T. Mayer-Cuckoo, Nuclear physics, Teubner Verlag
  • J. Bleck-Neuhaus, Elementary Particles, Springer Verlag
  • Povh, Rith, Scholz, Zetsche, Particles and nuclei, Springer Verlag
  • D. Griffiths, Introduction to Elementary Particle Physics, Akademie Verlag

The lecture offers an introduction to the mathematical methods of theoretical physics, which are motivated by fundamental problems of theoretical mechanics.

  • Vectors, matrices and linear maps
  • Newon mechanics
  • Differentiation and integration in several mutable factors
  • Newton's law of gravitation
  • complex numbers and differential equations
  • Vibrations
  • Laplace and Fourier transformation
  • J.B. Marion, Classical Mechanics of Particles and Systems, Thomson
  • F. Embacher, Mathematical Basics for Physics Teacher Training, Vieweg & Teubner, 2008
  • R. Feynman, R Leighton, M. Sands, Lectures on Physics, Volume I, Mechanics, Radiation, Heat, Oldenbourg
  • W. Nolting. Theoretical Physics 1: Classical Mechanics
  • K. J & aumlnich, Analysis for Physicists and Engineers, Springer
  • Electrostatics (field equations, electrical potential, Poisson and Laplace equations, boundary value problems, Green's functions, multipole expansion, E-field in matter)
  • Magnetostatics (field equations, Biot-Savart's law and applications, vector potential, magnetic moment, magnetic field in matter)
  • Electrodynamics (Maxwell equations, electrodynamic potentials, freedom from calibration, wave equations, energy law, Maxwell's stress tensor)
  • Electromagnetic waves (reflection, refraction, waveguides, Lienard-Wiechert potentials, dipole radiation, wave propagation in media)
  • Special relativity theory (covariant formulation of the field equations, Lagrange formalism for fields)
  • Mathematical supplements (delta distribution, vector analysis, orthogonal function systems, elements of function theory)
  • J.D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, De Gruyter
  • T. Flie & szligbach, Electrodynamics: Textbook on Theoretical Physics II, Spectrum Academic Publishing House

We start with the theoretical fundamentals of thermodynamics and statistical physics: the three main principles of thermodynamics including applications, stability problems of homogeneous and heterogeneous systems, mixing entropy, Van der Waals gas, Gibb's phase rule and thermal machines. Statistical physics deals with: the micro-canonical, the canonical and the grand-canonical ensemble. Quantum mechanical aspects are introduced based on the exact statistics of indistinguishable particles. We study ideal and real Fermi and Bose gases (applications: electrons in metals, photons and phonons). Based on models of magnetism (Heisenberg and Ising), phase transitions are dealt with and the lecture concludes with modern aspects of the theory of phase transitions, such as the laws of scale.


Theoretical Physics I to IV

  • Kerson Huang, Statistical Mechanics, J. Wiley, N.Y.
  • L.E. Reichl, A Modern Course in Statistical Physics, Arnold Publ.
  • G. Adam, O. Hittmair, Heat theory, Vieweg

Data analysis for natural scientists: Statistical methods in theory and practice (BOK, BSc, MSc, WP2)
Lecturer: apl. Prof. Dr. Ulrich Landgrave
Time: 3 hours, Mon 14-16, Tue 14-16 (14 daily)
Location: SR I
Exercises: Mon 4 pm-5pm, Tue 2 pm-4pm (every 2pm), SR I
Start: October 20, 2014

Scientific knowledge is based on an interplay between theory and experiment. The correct and optimal evaluation of the measurement data plays a key role. You already become aware of this during the internship. In addition to the specification of the central value, the determination of the statistical errors and the specification of confidence intervals are of decisive importance. In the lecture, the most important methods for statistical data analysis and their properties are explained and the practical approach is illustrated using simple examples.

The following topics are discussed:


Previous knowledge:

  • Cowan , Statistical Data Analysis , Oxford Univ Press
  • Brandt , Data analysis: using statistical methodsand computer programs , Spectrum Academic Publishing House
  • Barlow , Statistics: A Guide to the Use of StatisticalMethods in the Physical Science s , Wiley VCH
  • Blobel and Lohrmann,Statistical and numerical methods of data analysis,Teubner Verlag
  • Joe Howard: Mechanics of Motor Proteins and the Cytoskeleton
  • Gary Boal: Mechanics of the Cell
  • Rob Phillips: Physical Biology of the Cell
  • Crystal lattice, inorganic semiconductor materials (e.g. Si, Ge, GaAs)
  • Manufacture of semiconductor bulk crystals and epitaxial layers
  • Electronic band structure, tight-binding vs. one-electron model
  • n- and p-doping, effective mass
  • Density of states, charge carrier statistics
  • electronic transport, fields and flows, p-n transition
  • Quantization effects in semiconductors, 2D, 1D and 0D semiconductor heterostructures
  • Semiconductor quantum films and lattices

Experimental Physics IV (Condensed Matter)

  • Ibach / L & uumlth, Solid State Physics
  • K. Seeger, Semiconductor Physics
  • P.Y. Yu, M. Cardona, Fundamentals of Semiconductors


Subject Didactics II
Lecturer: Dr. Patrick Vogt
(Event of the educational college)
Time: Thu 13-17
Location: P & aumldagogische Hochschule KG 3-111
Dates: 08.01., 15.01., 22.01., 29.01., 05.02., 12.02.

  • Scattering theory
    • Scattering amplitude and cross section
    • Partial wave expansion
    • Born series
    • Algebraic derivation of the spectrum
    • Half-integer angular momenta and spin
    • Symmetries and invariances in quantum mechanics, representation theory
    • Decomposition into irreducible representations, addition of angular momenta and Wigner-Eckart theorem
    • The Dyson series for time-dependent perturbations
    • Transitions into a continuum: Fermi's golden rule
    • Example: Photo-ionization
    • Systems of distinguishable particles
    • Indistinguishable particles: Fermi and Bose systems, spin-statistics theorem
    • Variational principles, Hartree and Hartree-Fock approximation
    • Quantization of the electromagnetic field
    • Interaction Hamiltonian
    • Example: Emission and absorption of radiation
    • Dirac equation
    • Quantization of the Dirac field
    • Quantum electrodynamics

    Theoretical Physics IV - Quantum Mechanics

    • A. Galindo, P. Pascual, Quantum Mechanics II (Springer-Verlag)
    • G. Grawert, Quantum Mechanics (Academic Publishing Society)
    • W. Nolting, Basic Course Theoretical Physics 5/2 (Springer-Verlag)
    • F. Schwabl, quantum mechanics, quantum mechanics for advanced students (Springer-Verlag)
    • N. Straumann, Quantum Mechanics (Springer-Verlag)
    • Special relativity and flat spacetime
    • Curved spacetimes and their mathematical description (tensors, manifolds, curvature)
    • Gravity and its physics in curved spacetimes
    • Special solutions to Einstein's equations (Schwarzschild solution, cosmology)
    • Perturbation theory and gravitational radiation


    Electrodynamics and Special Relativity

    • active and regular participation in the tutorials, including solutions to 50% of the homework problems.
    • in case an exam is required, an oral exam will be offered. Prerequisite is the successful participation in the tutorials.

    Further details will be given in the lecture / tutorials.

    • Sean M. Carroll: "Spacetime and Geometry"
    • R.U. Sexl / H.K. Urbantke: "Gravitation and Cosmology"
    • R.M. Wald: "General Relativity"
    • C.W. Misner / K.S. Thorne / J.A. Wheeler: "Gravitation"

    Preliminary programs:

    • The direct and the inverse problem
    • Stochastic processes
    • Nonlinear dynamics
    • Numerical methods
    • Ill-posed problems
    • Spectral analysis
    • State space modeling
      .

    Particle Detectors
    Lecturers: Prof. Dr. Gregor Herten, Dr. Andrea Di Simone
    Time: 3 hours, Tue, Wed 12-14
    Location: SR GMH
    Start: October 21, 2014

    Preliminary program e:

    The lecture and exercise will cover the modern methods of particle detectors. After reviewing the basics of particle interactions with matter the main particle detectors concepts are discussed, like Energy and momentum measurements, position measurement and tracking, particle identifications, large detector systems, electronics and online data reduction with triggers. Real example will be discussed in the area of ​​particle physics, e.g. LHC, astroparticle physics and medical applications.

    Special emphasis is given in the exercises to get hands-on experience and to get acquainted with modern tools of computer simulations of particle detectors and practical applications in the lab.

    • K. Kleinknecht, Detectors for Particle Radiation, Teubner Verlag
    • W.R. Leo, Techniques for Nuclear and Particle Physics Experiments, Springer Verlag
    • C. Grupen, particle detectors, BI Wissenschaftsverlag

    Preliminary programs

    • Introduction: Modern experiments with atoms and molecules
    • Recap of the basics of quantum mechanics, the H-atom, light-matter interaction
    • Light-matter interaction: absorption and emission, two-level system, photoionization
    • Diatomic molecules: Structure and spectra
    • Polyatomic molecules: Symmetries and transitions
    • Clusters and nanoparticles

    The lecture is complemented by exercises, practical lab experiments, and discussion of recent publications.

      - Hertel, Schulz, Atoms, Molecules and Optical Physics 1, 2
      - Demtr & oumlder: Molecular Physics
      - Haken, Wolf, Molecular Physics and Quantum Chemistry
      - Demtr & oumlder: laser spectroscopy 1, 2
    • Introduction
    • Neutrino physics
    • Quantum electrodynamics (Theoretical introduction, exp. Tests, lepton-proton scattering)
    • Quantum Chromodynamics (Theory and experimental tests)
    • Electroweak theory (phenomenology, experimental tests at LEP and hadron colliders)
    • Physics of the Higgs Boson
    • Search for supersymmetry and other extensions of the Standard Model

    The lectures are complemented by exercises, including computer simulations, with the aim to provide a solid foundation in experimental particle physics

      - F. Halzen and A.D. Martin, Quarks & amp Leptons, John Wiley Verlag.
      - P. Schm & uumlser, Feynman graphs and gauge theories for experimental physicists, Springer Verlag.
      - D. Griffiths, Introduction to Elementary Particle Physics, Akademie Verlag.
    • Atomic structure of matter
    • Lattice dynamics, phonons
    • Electronic structure of materials
    • Optical properties
    • Magnetism / Superconductivity
    • Building blocks of life
    • Origin of chemical elements
    • Exoplanets
    • Solar system
    • Habitability
    • Origin of Earth and life on Earth
    • Search for extraterrestrial life
    • Space hazards
    • Extraterrestrial intelligent life

    Superconductivity 1
    Lecturer: Prof. Dr. Christian Els & aumlsser
    Time: 2 hours, Fri 8-10
    Location: SR I
    Exercises: every 14 days, 2 hours, place and time by arrangement (1 SWS)
    Start: October 24, 2014

    in English or German by agreement


    Program:

    • Introduction to the quantum mechanics of homogeneous superconductors Cooper's problem.
    • Electron-phonon interaction in normal metals and superconductors.
    • Theory of Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer the energy gap experimental observations.
    • Thermal and optical excitations derivation of thermodynamic properties.
    • Quantum mechanics of inhomogeneous superconductors
    • M. Tinkham, Introduction to Superconductivity
    • W. Buckel and R. Kleiner, Superconductivity: Fundamentals and Applications

    Phase transitons are to be found in many fields of physics. For instance, water has basically three different states of matter (phases): gaseous, liquid, and solid. As it turns out, the mathematical description of, say, the liquid-gas transtion is analogous to the description of transitions in ferro-magnetic systems. Another example are bosons, which can condense to a collective state at low enough temperatures, this is known as Bose-Einstein condensation. While the above mentioned examples manifest itself in changes of thermodynamic properties, e.g., the specific heat, there are also so-called quantum phase transitions between certain quantum states at zero degrees Kelvin. In the lecture, we will discuss the various mathematical approaches and concepts for describing (quantum) phase transtions.

    Phase transitons are an intriguing field of research. Its studies have also lead to the award of several Noble prizes:

    1968: L. Onsager for his work on the thermodynamics of irreversible processes
    1972: J. Bardeen, L. N. Cooper, and J. R. Schrieffer for their work on superconductivity
    1982: K. G. Wilson for his work on renormalizaion group theory
    1991: P.-G. de Gennes for his work on complex forms of matter
    2001: E. A. Cornell, C. E. Wieman, and W. Ketterle for their work on Bose-Einstein condensation

    • Introduction and basic concepts
    • Critical exponents
    • Landau theory
    • Scaling hypothesis for thermodynamic functions
    • Microscopic theories
    • Model systems
    • Fluctuations
    • Renormalization group theory
    • Quantum phase transitions
    • Bose-Einstein condensation

    The lecture is intended for master students having passed the lectures Theoretical Physics I-V. Further concepts and mathematical methods will be introduced when necessary.

    • H. E. Stanley, Introduction to Phase Transitions and Critical Phenomena, Oxford University Press, Oxford (1971)
    • S. K. Ma, Modern Theory of Critical Phenomena, W. A. ​​Benjamin, Reading (1976)
    • W. Gebhardt & amp U. Krey, phase mountains and critical phenomena, Vieweg Verlag
    • Landau & ampLifschitz, V Statistical Physics - Part 1
    • S. Sachdev, Quantum Phase Transitions. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2000)

    Program:

    Prerequisites:

    Photonic Imaging
    Lecturer: Prof. Dr. Alexander Rohrbach
    Time: 3 hours, Wed 13-16
    Location: SR I
    Exercises: by agreement
    Start: 10/22 2014

    Contents
    :

    1. Microscopy: History, Presence and Future
    2. Wave and Fourier optics
    3. 3D optical imaging and information transfer
    4. Contrast enhancement by Fourier filtering
    5. Fluorescence - basics and techniques
    6. Scanning microscopy: from confocal to 4pi microscopy
    7. Microscopy with self-reconstructing beams
    8. Optical tomography
    9. Nearfield and evanescent field microscopy
    10. Super-resolution using structured illumination
    11. Multi-photon microscopy
    12. Super resolution by switching single molecules

    About the lecture:
    The scientific breakthroughs and technological developments in optical microscopy and imaging have experienced a real revolution over the last 10-15 years. Hence, the 2014 Nobel Prize for super-resolution microscopy could be seen as a logical consequence. This lecture gives an overview about physical principles and techniques used in modern photonic imaging.

    Goals:
    The student should learn how to guide light through optical systems, how optical information can be described very advantageously by three-dimensional transfer functions in Fourier space, how phase information can be transformed to amplitude information to generate image contrast. Furthermore one should experience that wave diffraction is not reducing the information and how to circumvent the optical resolution limit. The student should learn to distinguish between coherent and incoherent imaging, learn about modern techniques using self-reconstructing laser beams, two photon excitation, fluorophores depletion through stimulated emission (STED) or multi-wave mixing by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) .
    The lecture has an ongoing emphasis on applications, but nevertheless presents a mixture of fundamental physics, compact mathematical descriptions and many examples and illustrations. The lecture aims to encompass the current state of a scientific field, which will influence the fields of nanotechnology and biology / medicine quite significantly.

    In the tutorials the contents of the lecture will be strengthened and consolidated. In particular transfer thinking will be trained. The students must work on the weekly distributed exercises and then present the results in class after one week. The solutions of the more difficult exercises might be presented by the tutor.


    Literature :

    Theory and Simulation of Molecular Dynamics
    Lecturer: Prof. Dr. Gerhard Stock
    Time: 3 hours, Mon 14-16, Thursday 14-15
    Location: HS II
    Start: October 20, 2014

    I. Computational Physics
    Why doing simulations?

    Biomolecules
    Non-covalent interactions
    Van der Waals forces
    Electrostatics
    Water and the hydrophobic effect

    III. Statistical Mechanics

    Statistical description and probability
    Equilibrium: the second law of thermodynamics
    Entropy
    The partition function
    Ensembles and thermodynamics potentials

    Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics
    The force field
    Integration of the equation of motion
    Sampling methods
    Analysis
    Normal mode analysis

    V. Fundamental Stochastic Processes

    A simple system: the two state model
    Activation energies
    Transition state theory: Kramer's theory
    The reaction coordinate
    Markov processes


    Basic knowledge of classical mechanics and thermodynamics.

    • D. Chandler: Introduction to Modern Statistical Dynamics
    • D. Frenkel & B. Smit: Understanding Molecular Simulation
    • A. Leach: Molecular Modeling

    Literature :
    Introduction to physics with experiments for natural scientists and environment scientists
    Lecturer: apl. Prof. Dr. Bernd v. Issendorff
    Time: 4 hours, Tues 10-12, Thurs 9-11
    Location: Gr. HS
    Start: October 21, 2014

    • Basic concepts of physics
    • Mechanics of rigid and deformable bodies
    • mechanical, sound and light waves
    • Heat and electricity theory
    • optics
    • Ionizing radiation, atomic and nuclear physics

    All physical subjects are illustrated through a variety of demonstrated experiments. Practical applications are presented and references to other natural sciences such as biology and chemistry are made. The lecture prepares for participation in the physics beginner's internship. The lecture includes weekly exercises that are to be calculated independently and then discussed and explained with the tutors in the 8-10 exercise groups offered for the lecture.

    The division and appointment allocation for the exercises takes place in the first lecture hour, an exam takes place at the end of the semester.


    The lecture is aimed at students of the natural sciences (biology, chemistry, geology etc.) in the first semester.


    Video: Heterogeneous Catalytic Reaction in DWSIM (July 2022).


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