Chemistry

Hermann Staudinger

Hermann Staudinger



We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Biography

Born
March 23, 1881 in Worms
Died
September 8, 1965 in

In the early 1920s, Hermann Staudinger expressed the view that very large molecules existed, which could sometimes consist of 10,000 or even 100,000 atoms. form if a possible ring closure cannot take place for steric reasons.

What is taken for granted today was considered absurd back then, a topic that has long been the subject of controversy in academia. It is theoretically very difficult and experimentally very laborious to find evidence of the existence of giant molecules as the building principle of numerous natural and synthetic materials. Staudinger paid particular attention to viscosity measurements for determining molar mass. It was not until the 1930s that the theory of macromolecules was able to gain acceptance.

In practice, the production of new types of plastics from polymers had already begun. Knowledge of the theoretical principles made it possible to adapt the properties of these products to a wide range of requirements.

In 1926, Hermann Staudinger accepted a call from the University of Freiburg, where he ended his career in 1956. In 1953 he received the Nobel Prize for Chemistry "in recognition of the founding of macromolecular chemistry". He has published more than 500 articles on macromolecular compounds, cellulose, gum and isoprene, but also on topics such as explosions, insecticides, synthetic pepper and coffee aromas. Hermann Staudinger was married to Magda Woith, his long-time employee and co-author.


Hermann Staudinger

Hermann Staudinger (* March 23, 1881 in Worms † September 8, 1965 in Freiburg im Breisgau) was a German chemist and Nobel Prize winner.

Staudinger was an organic chemist and founded macromolecular chemistry (polymer chemistry, chemistry of macromolecules). He made important contributions to the structural elucidation of the macromolecules cellulose, starch, rubber and polystyrene. He discovered the substance group of the ketenes and found a process for the preparation of diazomethane, a method of reducing carbonyl groups to methylene groups.


HERMANN STAUDINGER was born on March 23, 1881 in Worms. His father, Dr. FRANZ STAUDINGER, was a philosopher in Darmstadt. He advised him to study chemistry after school and pursue a career in science.
STAUDINGER went to school in Worms and took an early interest in natural sciences.
In 1899 he began his studies at the University of Halle and studied in Darmstadt, Munich and again in Halle, where he graduated in 1903.

Later, in 1907, HERMANN STAUDINGER became assistant professor for organic chemistry at the Technical University in Karlsruhe.
In 1910 the scientist worked on the synthesis of Isoprene. In doing so, he discovers that the previously valid theories about the structure of natural rubber must be wrong. He developed a new hypothesis based on long molecules, but had difficulties to prove them experimentally.
STAUDINGER is looking for simpler structures and is dealing with that Styrene (Styrene, picture 3).
STAUDINGER stayed in Karlsruhe as a professor until 1912.

In 1912 he moved to Zurich and taught at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology for 14 years.
Plastics were already being produced in the chemical industry until the 1920s. The most successful were the so-called Bakelite, Hard plastic materials (Fig. 4). The scientists began to systematically research these in order to decipher their molecular structure.
Fascinated by the many possible uses of such artificially produced materials, STAUDINGER began researching their chemical properties in 1920.

In 1922 the scientist published an article in the Swiss science newspaper “Helvetica Chimica Acta” about the structure of large molecules and coined the term "Macromolecules". At the same time he explains the process of the Polymerization.


Contacts and contact persons

Hermann-Staudinger-Gymnasium
Elsenfelder Strasse 55
63906 Erlenbach
Telephone: 09372/5450
Fax: 09372/9400137
Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. To display JavaScript must be turned on!

principalin: Christine Büttner, OStDin

Deputy Headmistress: Anette Wohlmann, StDin

Counseling teacher: Christian Ruft, StR

School psychologist: Monika Löscher, StRin

Upper level supervisor: Frank Fuchs, StD, Christopher Schuhmann, StR

Intermediate level supervisor: Oliver Brendel, StR

Lower level supervisor: Martin Lange, StD

Parents Advisory Board
1st Chair: Isabell Kreher
Deputy: Heiko Reichold

Liaison teacher
Christian Iberle, StR @: This email address is being protected from spambots. To display JavaScript must be turned on! and by appointment
Karin Lange, StDin @: This email address is being protected from spambots. To display JavaScript must be turned on! and by appointment

Counseling teacher and addiction prevention officer
Christian Ruft, StR @: This email address is being protected from spambots. To display JavaScript must be turned on! and by appointment

School psychologist
Monika Löscher, StRin - Office hours: by appointment, @: This email address is being protected from spam bots! To display JavaScript must be turned on!

Lower level supervisor
Martin Lange, StD - Office hours: by appointment, @: This email address is being protected from spam bots! To display JavaScript must be turned on!

Intermediate level supervisor
Oliver Brendel, StR - Office hours: by appointment, @: This email address is being protected from spam bots! To display JavaScript must be turned on!

Upper school coordinators (responsible for questions relating to the qualification phase)
Frank Fuchs, StD - Office hours: by appointment
Christopher Schuhmann, StR - Office hours: by appointment, @: This email address is being protected from spam bots! To display JavaScript must be turned on!

Learning material library
David Hohm, StR - Book hour: by arrangement directly at the staff room or @: This email address is being protected from spam bots! To display JavaScript must be turned on!

All-day care
Markus Füller, StD @ This email address is being protected from spambots. To display JavaScript must be turned on!

Partnerships:

- Handball performance center Großwallstadt
- Erlenbach Music School
- Main volunteer office in Erlenbach
- partner schools in Brittany
- women for women
- Partner companies: Alcon, WIKA, ICO, Takata, Linde, Mitsubishi
- Aschaffenburg University of Applied Sciences
- University of Würzburg
- Walter Reis Foundation


The development in the post-war period caused the population in the district of Obernburg am Main to swell to over 60,000 by 1964, but there was still no school of its own. The then 470 high school students attended high schools in Aschaffenburg and Miltenberg. These facts and the Bavarian school development plan from 1963, which provided for the establishment of 107 new grammar schools, gave the impetus for efforts to found a grammar school in the district, which led to success in a short time, and with the district council resolution of April 9, 1964 an application was made to the Ministry of Education for the establishment of a grammar school.

The industrial structure of the district made a mathematical and natural science high school with basic English seem sensible, it should be supplemented by a new language branch. The communities of Obernburg, Elsenfeld and Erlenbach applied for the location. The decision was finally made in favor of the then market in Erlenbach, whose council and mayor had put forward traffic-related reasons and offered a developed building site and a grant of 600,000 DM.

First of all, premises in the Dr.-Vits-Schule were provided by the market in Erlenbach and the grammar school Erlenbach-Obernburg was opened with a ceremony on September 10, 1965. The first head of the school was the study professor Wilhelm Wolf from Kitzingen, who had only part-time teaching staff for 103 pupils in three classes in addition to two trainee teachers and a secretary. The foundation stone was laid for a school building of its own on June 9, 1967. As early as the following September, school operations began in the half-finished building with 379 students and 14 full-time teachers.

The inauguration of the new building took place on October 17, 1968, together with the official naming of the building. The school was named after the founder of macromolecular chemistry, the Nobel laureate Hermann Staudinger, whose research had found its technical and industrial application in the neighboring large chemical company.

The teaching of the pupils, the number of which had risen to over 1000 in 1972/1973, was initially only ensured by trainee lawyers, as the number of full-time teachers only rose to around 55 years later. In 1974 the first 38 students passed the Abitur examination. The changeover to the 5-day week, the baby boom years and, above all, the introduction of the college level in the 1977/78 school year increased the shortage of space in the school, which had only been built for 21 classes. At the request of the school management, the district council decided to build an extension, which was inaugurated on May 19, 1981. This building comprised a natural science wing, a biology wing, two music halls, a library and work and common rooms. Parts of the one-storey extension from 1981 were demolished in 2015 to make room for a multi-storey extension. The two music halls were dismantled.

The Hermann-Staudinger-Gymnasium is located on the northern outskirts of the city of Erlenbach in the Lower Franconian district of Miltenberg and is right next to the Barbarossa School, which is attended by around 400 secondary school students. There are bus stops next to the east exit on Elsenfelder Straße and in the school car park. The train station is 700 meters away.

Encounter of Generations Edit

The aims of the project are to improve the image of old age in society, to bring generations together, to develop interest and understanding for the concerns of other generations and to get to know the traditions and values ​​of the respective generations. In this way, generation differences can be compensated and social behavior can be promoted. The project was founded in 2001 by the teacher and later member of the state parliament, Hans-Jürgen Fahn. [3] Over the years, new modules have been added such as cell phone courses, visits and cooking afternoons.

School newspaper edit

The name "Bunkerpost" of the school newspaper is derived from the exposed concrete charm of the original building. It was founded in 1966, in the second year of school. The first editor-in-chief was Dieter Berthold, who still works today as a journalist and communications specialist.

After the print edition found less response, a digital school newspaper called "bapp" [4] was launched in November 2018. It is also offered as an app. [5] While P seminars in the subject of computer science programmed and set up the technical side, including a content management system, articles were developed in the subject of German and the structure was created for the readers.

The "bapp" received numerous awards across Bavaria, including the P-Seminar Prize from the State of Bavaria. [6]

Sports edit

Through cooperation with surrounding clubs and the handball performance center in Großwallstadt, the school teams were able to contribute Youth trains for the Olympics the state and 2014 national winners. [7] [8]

Against the trend, the number of teams in the sport of judo that participate in Youth trains for the Olympics compete. From the beginning of one team in competition class II among the boys, the number of participating teams in the district finals has increased from year to year. In 2017, for example, you could fight for gold, silver and bronze medals in various competition classes at the state finals in Munich. [9]

Robot construction edit

Since 2006, robot construction, meanwhile under the title “Robotech”, has been offered as an optional course for pupils from the 6th grade onwards. [10] The students learn the basics of scientific thinking in a playful way, especially with Lego Mindstorms. The course covers both the mechanical functioning of the robots and intelligent programming. In recent years, the elective course has been expanded to include project seminars for the upper level, where older students can pass on their knowledge and experience to the lower level students. The “Robo Tigers” celebrated their greatest success to date with their participation in the 2013 European finals in the “First Lego League” competition. Other competitions that are regularly taken part in are the annual “Reis Robotics Invention Award”, the “World Robot Olympiad” or the “HAG Robotic Night”. In 2017, the HSG's robot builders presented their projects and developments to other students from Aschaffenburg and the surrounding area, as well as experts from business and science, at a "MINT day" organized by the Aschaffenburg University of Applied Sciences. [11]

As a result of the conversion of the Bavarian grammar school system to the eight-year grammar school, the premises of the HSG also had to be adapted to the changed requirements. In particular, the more extensive afternoon classes led to the expansion of common rooms and the cafeteria. The former student café had to make room for the 150 m² cafeteria with kitchen. The staff room and the administration area have been expanded. In the former open inner courtyard, the so-called “theme tower” was built, which provided relaxation areas and computers with internet connection on two floors. The inauguration of the converted premises took place on July 7, 2006.

Since the students did not accept the theme tower in its original form, after a while the upper area was converted into the Q11 / Q12 lounge area, and the SMV (student co-administration) moved into a larger room in the lower area.

In 2015, the use of the "theme tower" was changed again: the lower level library moved into the lower area, and the school library's media were also distributed over the entire area. As of autumn 2018, the theme tower is no longer accessible because it is in the construction site area. Parts of the media inventory were then relocated to a replacement room.

At the end of 2018, all classrooms had interactive whiteboards controlled by Linux computers and document cameras. Classic blackboards, document cameras, PCs and projectors are available in the natural science rooms. The entire building is covered with LAN and WLAN. The HSG has three computer rooms with Linux computers. There is a class set of tablets and a 3D printer.

The HSG has been undergoing major reconstruction and expansion since August 2015. The planning phase began in March 2014. [12] The aims of the planning were to upgrade the natural science wing and make it more spacious. B. allow divisible seminar rooms. Furthermore, the school should be brought up to date in terms of energy.

The facade of the building stock will be completely renewed for this purpose, all classrooms will be equipped with decentralized ventilation and sensor-based control technology. In the course of the renovation, many room uses will change. B. Main entrance (from west to south), staff room and administration, library and almost all specialist rooms.

The renovation work is divided into several phases through the step-by-step expansion plan, on the one hand the aim was to keep the burden on the school operation low, on the other hand to not cause a shortage of space, as new specialist and classrooms were created at the beginning of the measure.

  • Preparatory work by September 2015 (completed): Demolition of the two music halls, two classrooms, a connecting hall and the elevator shaft, partial demolition of a stairwell. Outsourcing of four classrooms in pavilions (built in the school yard).
  • Construction phase 1, by February 2017 (completed): New construction of an L-shaped part of the building on the site of the former music halls or in front of the current physics wing towards the east (Elsenfelder Straße). The northern part of this new building accommodates the specialist rooms and preparations for physics, biology and chemistry (three-story), the eastern extension houses classrooms (two-story). The new building was occupied in the 2017 school year. The official handover took place on April 5, 2017. [13]
  • Construction phase 2, by November 2018 (completed): Refurbishment of the northern area of ​​the existing building. new music halls, physics class halls, art halls and numerous classrooms completed.
  • In construction phase 3, which began in November 2018, the southern part of the existing building is being renovated - this area also includes the auditorium, the previous administration, the cafeteria and the previous main entrance. For the cafeteria, it was possible to ensure that it can remain open at its previous location until Easter 2019 - however, it can only be reached via a narrow side entrance. For the rest of the construction work until spring 2020, the cafeteria including the kitchen and scullery must be temporarily housed in the basement (in a “double-sized” factory hall with a terrace area). Numerous other new rooms in construction phase 2 also have to be used temporarily differently than planned, as the teachers' room, secretariat and other administration had to be accommodated (now temporarily in the central area of ​​the ground floor).

Originally, the renovation and refurbishment was supposed to take until 2019 at a cost of just under 17.5 million euros. [14] After various delays and cost increases, the new budget is 22 million euros, the time of completion in March 2020. [15] The architect and general planner of the renovation is the office agn smp from Eltville-Erbach. [16]


German Nobel Prize in Chemistry since 1901

Hamburg (dpa) - So far, 27 German researchers have received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. The most famous award winners include Fritz Haber, Karl Bosch, Friedrich Bergius and Otto Hahn. Gerhard Ertl from the Fritz Haber Institute in Berlin was honored as the 28th German on Wednesday. The following are the previous German Nobel Prize winners in Chemistry since 1901:

1988: Johann Deisenhofer, Robert Huber and Hartmut Michel received the Nobel Prize for determining the three-dimensional structure of a protein that plays an important role in photosynthesis.

1979: Georg Wittig receives a partial price for new possibilities for the synthesis of organic substances. The “Wittig reaction” he discovered is used in the synthesis of vitamins.

1973: Ernst Otto Fischer receives part of the prize for work on the chemistry of organometallic so-called "sandwich compounds".

1967: Manfred Eigen is awarded part of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for investigations into extremely fast chemical reactions that play a role in biological systems.

1963: Karl Ziegler receives a partial award for discoveries in the field of chemistry and technology of high polymers. These include polyethylene, polystyrene and synthetic rubbers.

1953: Hermann Staudinger for his discoveries in the field of macromolecular chemistry that contributed to the development of the plastic plastics industry.

1950: Otto Paul Hermann Diels and Kurt Alder share the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. They are honored for the discovery and development of diene synthesis. This opened up opportunities for the development of insecticides.

1944: Otto Hahn receives the award for his discovery of the fission of atoms. Hahn, who opened up enormous possibilities for mankind to use atomic energy with his discovery, turned against the military use of atomic power.

1939: Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt receives a partial award for his work on sex hormones. Its isolation and partial synthesis of female and male hormones was a prerequisite for the development of the birth control pill.

1938: Richard Kuhn is recognized for his work on carotenoids and vitamins.

1931: Karl Bosch and Friedrich Bergius received the honor for their discovery and development of the high pressure chemical processes that were used to liquefy coal and to produce synthetic fuels.

1930: Hans Fischer receives the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his research on the composition of the red blood and green leaf pigments and the synthesis of the coloring blood component hemin.

1928: Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus is honored for research into the structure of sterols and their connection with vitamins. Windaus, who, among other things, determined the structure of cholesterol, is considered the founder of modern vitamin research.

1927: Heinrich Otto Wieland for research into the composition of bile acid and related substances.

1925: Richard Adolf Zsigmondy for research into colloidal solutions. He developed ultramicroscopes that became important tools for colloid research.

1920: Walther Hermann Nernst for his thermochemical work. Nernst developed the theory that absolute zero can never be reached.

1918: Fritz Haber for the synthesis of ammonia, which became the basis for the production of artificial fertilizers.

1915: Richard Martin Willstätter for his studies of the dyes in the plant kingdom. Among other things, he determined the structure of chlorophyll.

1910: Otto Wallach for services to the development of organic chemistry. With the synthesis of essential oils (aromatic substances) he opened up huge new possibilities for the perfume industry.

1909: Wilhelm Ostwald especially for his work on catalysis. He is considered the founder of physical chemistry in Germany.

1907: Eduard Buchner for his biochemical investigations and the discovery of cell-free fermentation (alcoholic fermentation without yeast cells with the help of an enzyme).


Hermann Staudinger and the Foundation of Polymer Science

Dedicated April 19, 1999, at the Hermann Staudinger House at the Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry in Freiburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany.

Hermann Staudinger’s pioneering theories on the polymer structures of fibers and plastics and his later research on biological macromolecules formed the basis for countless modern developments in the fields of materials science and biosciences and supported the rapid growth of the plastics industry. For his work in the field of polymers, Staudinger was awarded the Nobel Prize for chemistry in 1953.

Contents

Hermann Staudinger: Father of Macromolecular Chemistry

In 1920, Hermann Staudinger, then professor of organic chemistry at the Eigenössische Technische Hochschule in Zurich, created a stir in the international chemical community when he postulated that materials such as natural rubber have very high molecular weights. In a paper entitled & quotÜber Polymerisation, & quot Staudinger presented several reactions that form high molecular weight molecules by linking together a large number of small molecules. During this reaction, which he called & quotpolymerization, & quot individual repeating units are joined together by covalent bonds.

This new concept, referred to as & quotmacromolecules & quot by Staudinger in 1922, covered both synthetic and natural polymers and was the key to a wide range of modern polymeric materials and innovative applications. Today, the molecular architectures of synthetic polymers and biopolymers are tailored with high precision to meet the demands of modern technology. The products of polymer chemistry are diverse, from food packaging, textile fibers, auto parts and toys, to membranes for water desalination, carriers used in controlled drug release and biopolymers for tissue engineering.

Staudinger's concept, however, represented a strong challenge to his contemporaries. The scientific community was very reluctant to admit the existence of extremely large compounds with molecular weights exceeding 5000. Instead, micelle-type aggregates, as observed for soap molecules, were considered to account for the unusual properties of such materials. Moreover, some scientists were convinced that the size of a molecule could never exceed the size of the unit cell, as measured by X-ray crystallography.

Staudinger, following the scientific tradition of classical organic chemistry, presented sound experimental evidence to support the existence of high molecular weight polymers. He selected natural rubber as the model system because Carl Harries and Rudolf Pummerer had suggested independently that natural rubber consisted of aggregated small cyclic polyisoprene units via & quotpartial valencies & quot associated with the double bonds. Such aggregates should have been destroyed when the double bonds were removed by hydrogenation. Staudinger's hydrogenation experiments showed that hydrogenated rubber was very similar to normal unsaturated rubber.

During the late 1920s, Staudinger provided additional evidence based on viscometry to confirm that molecular weights remained unchanged during chemical modification of polymers.

Despite the impressive experimental evidence, Staudinger continued to encounter very strong opposition from leading organic chemists for nearly two decades. For instance, Heinrich Wieland, 1927 Nobel laureate in chemistry, wrote to Staudinger, & quotDear colleague, drop the idea of ​​large molecules organic molecules with a molecular weight higher than 5000 do not exist. Purify your products, such as rubber, then they will crystallize and prove to be low molecular compounds! & Quot

In his autobiography, Staudinger commented: & quotMy colleagues were very skeptical about this change, and those who knew my publications in the field of low molecular chemistry asked me why I was neglecting this interesting field and instead was working on a very unpleasant field and poorly defined compounds, like rubber and synthetic polymers. At that time the chemistry of these compounds was often designated, in view of their properties, as Schmierenchemie ('grease chemistry'). & Quot

Staudinger never ceased to promote his concepts of polymer sciences, despite his colleagues' mistrust of many of his methods and results. In lively discussions, he eloquently defended his ideas against all attacks using his ingenuity, persistence and pronounced enthusiasm. By the end of the 1920s and during the 1930s, Staudinger's macromolecular concept found increasing acceptance by other chemists. Although some of his opponents still maintained their objections, his concept was already being applied in industrial processes.

At long last, on December 10, 1953, Staudinger received his reward for the concept of macromolecules and his prolonged effort to establish the science of large molecules when he was awarded the Nobel Prize for chemistry.

Polymer Landmarks

The links below will direct you to more National Historic Chemical Landmarks about developments in polymer chemistry and production:

Biography of Hermann Staudinger

Hermann Staudinger was born in Worms on the Rhine on March 23, 1881. Because he loved plants and flowers, he studied botany under Georg Klebs at the University of Halle after graduating from high school in 1899. His father suggested that he take some chemistry courses to get a better understanding of botany. Following this paternal advice, Hermann studied chemistry at the Universities of Halle, Darmstadt and Munich. Chemistry became his main interest, and in 1903 at the age of 22, he took his Ph.D. under Daniel Vorländer in Halle.

He continued his research in organic chemistry in the laboratory of Johannes Thiele at the University of Strasbourg. During his investigations of carboxylic acid compounds, he discovered the highly reactive ketenes. In 1907, immediately after completing his postdoctoral work on the ketenes, Staudinger, at the age of 26, was appointed full professor at the Technical University of Karlsruhe, succeeding Roland Scholl. In Karlsruhe, he met eminent chemists such as Carl Engler and Fritz Haber, the later founder of high-pressure chemistry. At that time, Staudinger's research focused on ketene chemistry, reactions of oxalyl chloride, aliphatic diazo compounds and preparation of butadiene and isoprene.

In 1912, Richard Willstätter, a world leader in organic chemistry, was appointed director of the newly founded Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry in Berlin-Dahlem. The Eigenössische Technische Hochschule in Zürich offered his vacated chair in chemistry to Staudinger, who had just published his first book, The ketene. In Zurich, Staudinger continued his research on organic synthesis. In addition, he started to investigate physiologically active natural compounds. With Leopold Ruzicka (who would win the Nobel Prize for chemistry in 1939), Staudinger identified the structure of natural pyrethrins and developed synthetic routes to these important natural insecticides.

During World War I, Staudinger also conducted research into ersatz compounds, substitutes for natural products that were in short supply during the war. In addition to the successful development of synthetic pepper, Staudinger and Thadaeus Reichstein carried out the difficult analysis of natural coffee aroma. Eventually, they came up with a credible ersatz aroma (furfuryl mercaptan with traces of methyl mercaptan), which was converted into an industrial process.

During this period, Staudinger was a typical practitioner of mainstream organic chemistry, which was already a highly sophisticated and respected science, led by chemists such as Adolf von Baeyer, Emil Fischer and Richard Willstätter. By 1914, organic chemists had prepared more than 100,000 synthetic compounds used for various applications, including dyes and pharmaceuticals. Although not yet 40, Staudinger was considered a leading organic chemist. During the 1920s, Staudinger decided to leave the safe and prestigious haven of classical organic chemistry to embark on the stormy high seas of polymer science. Staudinger's pioneering spirit drove him to break away from the typical thinking of traditional organic chemists and to advance new and revolutionary ideas.

In 1926, he was appointed to a chair at Albert Ludwigs University in Freiburg, where he dedicated all his efforts to establishing and expanding the frontiers of polymer science. His research topics included natural rubber, cellulose and synthetic polymers such as polyoxymethylene, polystyrene and polyethylene oxide, which Staudinger considered to be model systems for the much more complex biopolymers. As well as making synthetic polymers, Staudinger tried to determine the molecular weights of polymers by using end-group analysis, by measuring the viscosity of polymer solutions, and by using electron microscopy analysis.

Hermann Staudinger always maintained a close relationship with industry to obtain funds for his research and to act as a technical consultant for firms interested in plastics and rubber. For many years, the & quotFörderverein & quot (association of supporters) of the Institute for Macromolecular Chemistry linked the research managers of the various companies who sponsored polymer research in Freiburg. Staudinger's internal group seminar, which started in 1950, attracted both academic and industrial chemists, and it soon became the largest German annual polymer meeting with more than 700 participants during the 1990s.

Staudinger's research was published in more than 800 publications amounting to more than 10,000 printed pages. He summarized his research in his autobiography, Arbeitserinnerungen (From Organic Chemistry to Macromolecules) published in 1970. His collected works, entitled Das Wissenschaftliche Werk von Hermann Staudinger (The Scientific Contributions of Hermann Staudinger), were edited by Magda Staudinger and published between 1969 and 1976.

For many years, Staudinger's textbook, entitled Die hochmolekularenorganischenverbindungen Kautschuk und Cellulose (The High Molecular Weight Organic Compounds Rubber and Cellulose), published in 1932 by Springer in Berlin, was the & quotbible & quot of many academic and industrial scientists. In 1947, Staudinger inaugurated the new journal Makromolekulare Chemie with Wepf & amp Company, publishers in Basel. For more than 50 years, this journal has provided an excellent forum for scientific exchanges and has promoted the expansion of polymer science.

Staudinger also was concerned with moral and political issues outside the scope of academic chemistry. During World War I, he publicly criticized chemical warfare and opposed his old friend Fritz Haber, who had developed poison gas to support the German war effort. In 1917, Staudinger published a paper, based on a calculation of the industrial balance between the warring powers, in which he stated that the war was lost to Germany and should be stopped immediately, as any further bloodshed was senseless. His courageous statements were in direct opposition to the nationalist spirit of that period.

Staudinger's quest for peace meant that his patriotism was called into question many times. In fact, in 1934, during the Nazi period, the dean of Freiburg University, the famous German philosopher Martin Heidegger, initiated dismissal procedures against Staudinger. Although Staudinger was interrogated by the Gestapo and had to resign, his removal was postponed, and finally withdrawn, when he agreed to stop questioning Nazi authority in public. Even so, all of his requests to travel abroad to attend conferences were rejected after 1937.


Hermann Staudinger and the origin of macromolecular chemistry

Staudinger's visions paved the way for the development of modern plastics with diverse properties and applications at the interface between materials and life sciences. This is borne out by this essay, which, on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Nobel Prize award ceremony, reminds Hermann Staudinger that his revolutionary and heavily controversial concept opened up access to the molecular design of polymeric materials and effect materials, the property profiles of which are tailored to the application using the molecular architectures .

Note for articles published since 1962:

A search error may have occurred.

This is the German version of applied Chemistry.

Do not cite this version alone.

Take me to the International Edition version with citable page numbers, DOI, and citation export.


Research and protest

At the ETH Zurich he continued the research that had been started in Karlsruhe. Further fields of research were added, including work on synthetic pepper and drug syntheses during the First World War and, together with his colleague Tadeus Reichstein, on coffee aroma.

After the USA entered the war in 1917, Staudinger calculated that Germany's human and technical reserves would no longer be sufficient for a victory and advised immediate peace negotiations. From the beginning of 1918, in collaboration with the International Red Cross, he protested against the use of poison gas by means of magazine articles and public appearances. That's why he fell out with his friend Fritz Haber, the inventor and vehement advocate of chemical weapons.


Nació en marzo de 1881 en la ciudad de Worms, situada en el estado alemán de Renania-Palatinado. Hijo de un profesor de filosofía de Darmstadt, estudió química en la Universidad de Halle, donde se doctoró en 1903, pensando en dedicarse más tarde a la biología.

In 1907 he was nominated profesor de química en la Universidad de Estrasburgo, para pasar posteriormente por la Escuela Superior Técnica de Karlsruhe en 1908, dar clases en la Escuela Superior Técnica Federal de Zurich, y en la de Friburgo de Brisgovia en 1926.

En 1934, el filósofo Martin Heidegger, rector de Friburgo, se enteró de que Staudinger había solicitado la ciudadanía suiza durante la Primera Guerra Mundial, por lo que lo denunció ante el ministerio de Educación local como un pacifista oculto. El ministerio le solicitó la renuncia, pero Staudinger rehusó, por lo que el tema fue dejado de lado ante el escándalo internacional que pudiera haberse suscitado.

Staudinger murió el 8 de septiembre de 1965 en su residencia de Friburgo de Brisgovia, situada en el estado de Baden-Wurtemberg.

Staudinger comienza sus investigaciones estudiando los polímeros. En mayo de 1922 publica un artículo en la revista Helvetica Chimica Acta donde acuña el término macromolécula y sienta las bases de la polimerización. En 1926 expone su hipótesis de que un polímero es una larga cadena de unidades pequeñas unidas por enlaces covalentes.

From 1926 en adelante fue docente de la Universidad de Friburgo.

Desde 1935 amplió su estudio de las soluciones de polímeros a los poliésteres, lo que le permitió descubrir la relación que vincula la viscosidad y el peso molecular.

Desde 1940 fue, además, investigador principal del Instituto de Química Macromolecular.

En 1953 recibió the Premio Nobel de Química "por sus descubrimientos en el campo de la química macromolecular". Su mujer, Magda Woit Staudinger, fue coautora de varios de sus trabajos científicos.


Video: Hermann Staudinger Speech 1 (August 2022).