Chemistry

Noble gases

Noble gases


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Important physical and chemical properties

Tab. 1
Important properties of the noble gases
heliumneonargonkryptonxenonradon
symbolHeyNoArKrXeMarg
English nameheliumneonargonkryptonxenonradon
Atomic number21018365486
relative atomic mass [u]4,0020,1839,9583,8131,29222,02overview
Electron configuration1s2[Hey] 2s22p6[No] 3s23p6[Ar] 3d104s24p6[Kr] 4d105s25p6[Xe] 4f145d106s26p6
Ionization energy [eV]24,58721,5615,7614,012,1310,75overview
PhD energy [eV] np → (n + 1)s-16,611,59,98,36,8overview
Van der Waals radius [pm]99160190200220-overview
Melting point [K]0,95*24,583,8115,8161,3202
Melting point [° C]-272,1*-248,8-189,9-157,4-111,9-71,2overview
Boiling point [K]4,227,187,3119,8165,0211
Boiling point [° C]-269,1-246,1-185,9-153,4-115,6-62,2overview
Density (at 0° C) [kgm-3]0,170,8991,783,7484,499,23overview
Color of the light in gas discharge tubesWhiteRedvioletyellow-greenvioletWhiteoverview

* at a pressure of 24.5 bar, no solid phase at 101.3 kPa


Noble gases

Noble gases, Inert gases, the six gaseous homologous elements of main group VIII of the periodic table: helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon and radon. They have a completely filled electron shell 1s 2 or ns 2 np 6. Noble gases are monatomic gases that consist of spherical, non-polar atoms. Weak van der Waals forces act between the atoms, which become stronger with increasing polarizability of the atoms (i.e. with increasing atomic number). The stability of the electron configuration is also shown by the fact that the noble gases have the highest ionization energy of their group.

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Articles on the topic

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Non-metals

Non-metals (earlier too Metalloids called [1] [2]) are chemical elements that lack the typical metallic properties such as good electrical and thermal conductivity, gloss, hardness and good malleability.

The boundaries between semimetals and element semiconductors are fluid, which is due, on the one hand, to the different perspectives of the departments (chemistry and physics), and, on the other hand, to the fact that modifications of an element can have completely different properties, and thus in some cases have properties similar to those of metals can. The most famous modifications of carbon, graphite and diamond, are good examples of this. In contrast to diamond, graphite has very good electrical conductivity. The diamond, on the other hand, has a very high thermal conductivity (better than metals) despite its very poor electrical conductivity. The reason for this lies in the different mechanisms of heat transfer in diamond and in metals.

However, the fact that modifications can have completely different properties is only the case with some of the non-metals. In some cases, the metallic modifications can only form under special conditions, for example hydrogen under extremely high pressure inside planets [3], or iodine under high pressure.

The electron affinity of non-metals (with the exception of the noble gases) is generally the highest among the chemical elements. This leads to the fact that unbound atoms strive to take up electrons in order to obtain a stable, fully occupied valence shell (cf. octet rule) instead of giving up electrons like most metals. The exception here, in addition to the noble gases mentioned, is above all nitrogen.


Occurrence and representation

After hydrogen, helium is the second most abundant element in the universe. See the Main Products Cosmochemistry

Noble gases occur naturally in the earth's atmosphere, i.e. our air. But only 0.00016% of the 5.24 ml of helium per m³ of air consists of the nuclide 3 helium. The content in the air is:

argon 0,934 Vol .-% = 9,34 l / m 3
neon 18,18 ppm = 18,18 ml / m 3
helium 5,24 ppm
krypton 1,14 ppm
xenon 0,087 ppm = 87 ppb
radon traces

The radioactive decay product radon occurs only in traces in the ppt range (parts per trillion) of around 1000 atoms per liter of soil air - especially in some underground tunnels, caves and, among other things, in cellars.

The noble gases are represented in "air separation plants (LZA)" and low-pressure oxygen plants through fractional distillation of the air or the raw argon fraction of the LZA (air liquefaction). Because of their rarity, krypton, xenon and neon are much more expensive than argon and helium.

Most helium is obtained from natural gas, in which it is present up to approx. 8%, especially American sources have a high proportion of helium. When the natural gas is cooled to –205 ° C, only helium remains in gaseous form. Argon is also produced as a by-product in the synthesis of ammonia (see Haber-Bosch process), as it is enriched with approx. 10% in the gas mixture.


Noble gases - chemistry and physics

  1. general description
  2. helium
  3. neon
  4. argon
  5. krypton
  6. xenon
  7. radon
  8. Applications


1. General description:

  • Noble gases is a collective name for the elements of the 8th main group
  • they are the elements helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon and radon
  • the most common noble gas is argon
  • the 2nd most common is neon
  • this is followed by helium, krypton and xenon
  • Radon occurs only in traces as a product of natural, radioactive decay processes
  • Noble gases are components of the air
  • In addition to hydrogen, there is practically only helium in the space of the universe
  • Noble gases are colorless, tasteless and odorless gases
  • they only occur atomically
  • they dissolve relatively well in water
  • Due to their chemical properties, they are hardly distinguishable, so that they can therefore be identified with the help of physical methods
  • the melting points of the noble gases are at very low temperatures
  • Helium has the lowest melting and boiling point of all elements
  • the high ionization energies lead to extraordinary chemical stability
  • they are therefore also referred to as inert gases
  • the noble gases each have the highest ionization energy of their period
  • No compounds are known of the light noble gases helium, neon and argon
  • That the heavy noble gases krypton and xenon must be able to react to a certain extent becomes clear when you consider that xenon, for example, has a similarly high ionization energy as oxygen
  • Linus Pauling first referred to this fact in 1933
  • But it was not until 1962 that Bartlett presented a real noble gas compound with xenon hexafluoroplatinate
  • to date, over 30 noble gas compounds have become known
  • it is the first element of the 8th main group and has the symbol He
  • properties
    • it is a monatomic, colorless gas
    • there are three solid and two liquid modifications (modifications / changes)
    • at very low temperatures the heat of fusion of the helium tends to zero, then heat has to be added to freeze the helium
    • the atmosphere contains 4.6m 3 helium / m 3. It is mostly contained in natural gas deposits - (USA, CIS, Algeria)
    • by heating small minerals containing uranium and thorium. Large-scale through the liquefaction of natural gases.
    • Shielding gas for welding, cooling gas in nuclear reactors, breathing gas for divers, filling gas for balloons.
    • the second element of the 8th main group has the symbol Ne and its name is derived from the Greek word neon = the new
    • properties
      • monatomic, colorless gas
      • The earth's atmosphere contains about 16 ml / m 3 air
      • Neon is a by-product of air separation. It is separated by freezing out
      • as filling gas for fluorescent tubes and glow lamps. Liquid Ne is used as a coolant
      • the third element of the 8th main group has the symbol Ar
      • Occurrence
        • Argon is found in the atmosphere at approx. 9.3 l / m 3
        • In the laboratory, argon is obtained from air, which is chemically removed from oxygen and nitrogen. Large-scale extraction through air liquefaction
        • Shielding gas for welding and steel production, filling gas for light bulbs
        • the fourth element of the 8th main group has the symbol Kr. Its name is derived from the Greek kryptos = hidden.
        • Occurrence
          • in the air it is only contained at 1.1 ml / m 3
          • Krypton is a by-product in oxygen systems
          • Krypton is used as a lamp fill gas
          • the name of the 5th element of the 8th main group is derived from the Greek word xenos = foreign
          • Occurrence
            • Total occurrence of 0.08 ml / m 3 in the air
            • Xenon is a by-product in oxygen systems
            • as filling gas for lamps. Xenon is a reactor poison
            • the 6th element of the 8th main group with the symbol Rn was isolated from radium in 1900 by E. Rutherford and F.Soddy
            • hence the name.
            • it is a monatomic and odorless gas
            • Occurrence
              • it is found in deposits of radioactive minerals
              • radioactive remedy


              8. Applications

              • There is a noble gas and mercury vapor in the evacuated lamp tube
              • The noble gas is ionized by the electrons released by the electrode and ensures a current flow (impact ionization)
              • the electrons now excite the mercury atoms
              • if they return to their original state, they emit light quanta (254nm wavelength)
              • this generated UV radiation is converted into visible light by the internal fluorescent coating


              Helium against deep intoxication and diving illness

              • in compressed air cylinders is normal compressed air
              • Nitrogen is included
              • actually non-toxic
              • however, when compressed, it creates a deep noise
              • this leads to hallucinations from a depth of 30m
              • Diver suddenly gets an exuberant zest for life
              • causes the diver to forget to surface
              • To prevent this, the nitrogen is distilled and helium is added
              • But this also leads to the fact that the breathing gas is very expensive, a breath costs about 2 €
              • Helium, which is difficult to dissolve, is also good against diving diseases
              • In the case of diving illness, nitrogen bubbles bubble out of the vessels of the skin
              • these vesicles clog the oxygen supply and the blood supply
              • if nerve cells are blocked it can lead to death

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              Noble gases

              Noble gases, the elements of main group VIII of the periodic table. This includes the chem. Elements helium (He), neon (Ne), argon (Ar), krypton (Kr), xenon (Xe) and radon (Rn). They are colorless, odorless and tasteless, non-flammable, non-toxic, low-boiling gases that are always present in atomic form. The physical properties & # 228 & # 223 change regularly with the ordinal number. They are relatively soluble in water and some organic solvents. Their electrical conductivity significantly exceeds that of other gases.

              Noble gases. Tab .: Properties of the elements.

              [He] 2s 2 2p 6 [Ne] 3s 2 3p 6 [Ar] 3d 10
              4s 2 4p 6
              [Kr] 4d 10
              5s 2 5p 6
              [Xe] 4f 14 5d 10
              6s 2 6p 6
              Atomic mass 4,002602 20,1797 39,948 83,80 131,29 222,0176
              van der Waals radius
              in pm
              140 150 180 190 210
              Density gas in g l -1 0,17 0,84 1,66 3,48 5,49 9,23
              Kp. In & # 176C -268,9 -246,0 -185,7 -152,3 -107,1 -61,8

              The designation E. refers to their extraordinary chem. Inactivity & # 228t. This is due to the high stability of the electron configuration 1s 2 for helium and ns 2 p 6, the noble gas configuration, for the heavier homologues. The absence of the formation of molecules typical of other gaseous elements is explained by the fact that when two noble gas atoms interact, both the binding and the antibonding molecule must be occupied by two electrons.

              Until the early 1960s, the thesis was that & # 223 E. were completely inert and unable to form stable bonds with oneself or other elements. Crystalline hydrates and also clathrates (inclusion compounds) were known from E. True "valence bonds" of the noble gases could, although predicted by L. Pauling as early as 1927, only in 1962, independently of one another, by N. Bartlett and R. Hoppe through the action of PtF6 and elemental fluorine on xenon. In the period that followed, it was possible to synthesize a number of fluorides, oxide fluorides and oxides, especially xenon, but to a certain extent also krypton and radon. Today countless Xe-F, Xe-O and Kr-F compounds as well as some Xe-N, Xe-C, Kr-N and other noble gas compounds are known. Examples are: F-Xe-N (SO2F)2, [Xe-C6F.5] +, [F-Kr-NCH] +. Critical for the thermodynamic stability of xenon fluorides (XeFn, n = 2,4,6) is on the one hand the relatively low ionization energy of the heavy E. and on the other hand the high electron affinity of fluorine and the low enthalpy of dissociation of F2-Molec & # 252ls. This is in agreement that the kryptone derivatives are much more unstable than their xenon analogues (and radon should form the most stable compounds) and that e.g. B. Xenon dichloride XeCl2 compared to xenon difluoride XeF2 is extremely unstable. The bonding relationships in the noble gas compounds are to be described on the basis of an octet expansion and D orbital participation or on the basis of three-center four-electron bonds. The structures can advantageously be interpreted using the VSEPR model (xenon compounds). More at the individual E.


              Comments

              Dr. Marcus Wolf

              Even 150 years after Dmitri Mendeleev published a Periodic Table of the Chemical Elements, an understanding of chemical nobility is still hampered by linguistic and conceptual traditions. In the topologically irreducible form of the periodic system, namely the left-level periodic system (LSPSE), there is a very strong logical connection between the so-called l-noble elements (the term l-nobility was introduced by the chemist Frank Weinhold and by the chemist Henry A. Bent used very successfully for understanding the LSPSE) and all other elements in the respective l-block. Accordingly, there are currently four l-noble elements: helium, neon, zinc and ytterbium - in these elements the main electronic shells are completely occupied and sealed off. In particular, the states of the differentiating electrons are fully occupied here. If one disregards the s-electrons, which are valence electrons in all periods, these elements mark the reference element with the lowest reactivity in the respective l-block of the LSPSE. So helium is the l-noble element of the s-block, neon is the l-noble element of the p-block, zinc is the l-noble element of the d-block and ytterbium is the l-noble element of the f-block. All elements to the left and below these l-noble elements can be chemically disrupted with regard to the differentiating electrons of their period, that is, these elements can change their chemical valence by accepting or releasing electrons. In other words, these elements can have a chemical valency that significantly exceeds the s-electrons of the respective main shell, which can be oxidized anyway.

              With this concept one can set up experimentally verifiable working hypotheses, for example that there should be stable chemical bonds between elements of the neon group and strongly electrophilic chemical species. Stability of a chemical compound means, even among chemists, that a spectroscopic signature of a binding electronic state can be observed. It is completely banana whether this state can be observed at low temperatures, with the exclusion of other reactive species or under high pressures.


              Noble gases

              as Noble gases the elements of the 8th main group of the periodic table are designated (formerly also: zero group according to the newer numbering of the IUPAC: group 18). There are the elements: helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon and radon and ununoctium

              group 18
              Main group 8
              period
              1 2
              Hey
              2 10
              No
              3 18
              Ar
              4 36
              Kr
              5 54
              Xe
              6 86
              Marg
              7 118
              Uuo

              All noble gases are colorless, odorless, non-flammable and hardly water-soluble gases. They occur atomically instead of molecularly, since they are chemically almost impossible to form compounds. The reason for this is that the energy levels (outdated: “shells”) of the atom are closed (i.e. completely filled with electrons). For a more precise understanding of quantum mechanics, you need a few noble gas compounds (such as XePtF6) and inclusion compounds (clathrates) could be generated in the meantime.

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              Noble gases

              Noble gases, Inert gases, the six gaseous homologous elements of main group VIII of the periodic table: helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon and radon. They have a completely filled electron shell 1s 2 or ns 2 np 6. Noble gases are monatomic gases that consist of spherical, non-polar atoms. Weak van der Waals forces act between the atoms, which become stronger with increasing polarizability of the atoms (i.e. with increasing atomic number). The stability of the electron configuration is also shown by the fact that the noble gases have the highest ionization energy of their group.

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              Robert Raussendorf, Munich [RR1] (A) (19)
              Ingrid Reiser, Manhattan, USA [IR] (A) (16)
              Dr. Uwe Renner, Leipzig [UR] (A) (10)
              Dr. Ursula Resch-Esser, Berlin [URE] (A) (21)
              Dr. Peter Oliver Roll, Ingelheim [OR1] (A, B) (15 essay quantum mechanics and its interpretations)
              Prof. Dr. Siegmar Roth, Stuttgart [SR] (A) (Essay nanotubes)
              Hans-Jörg Rutsch, Walldorf [HJR] (A) (29)
              Dr. Margit Sarstedt, Leuven, B [MS2] (A) (25)
              Rolf Sauermost, Waldkirch [RS1] (A) (02)
              Matthias Schemmel, Berlin [MS4] (A) (02)
              Michael Schmid, Stuttgart [MS5] (A) (Essay nanotubes)
              Dr. Martin Schön, Constance [MS] (A) (14)
              Jörg Schuler, Taunusstein [JS1] (A) (06, 08)
              Dr. Joachim Schüller, Dossenheim [JS2] (A) (10)
              Richard Schwalbach, Mainz [RS2] (A) (17)
              Prof. Dr. Paul Steinhardt, Princeton, USA [PS] (A) (Essay quasicrystals and quasi-unit cells)
              Prof. Dr. Klaus Stierstadt, Munich [KS] (B)
              Dr. Siegmund Stintzing, Munich [SS1] (A) (22)
              Cornelius Suchy, Brussels [CS2] (A) (20)
              Dr. Volker Theileis, Munich [VT] (A) (20)
              Prof. Dr. Gerald 't Hooft, Utrecht, NL [GT2] (A) (essay renormalization)
              Dr. Annette Vogt, Berlin [AV] (A) (02)
              Dr. Thomas Volkmann, Cologne [TV] (A) (20)
              Rolf vom Stein, Cologne [RVS] (A) (29)
              Patrick Voss-de Haan, Mainz [PVDH] (A) (17)
              Dr. Thomas Wagner, Heidelberg [TW2] (A) (29)
              Dr. Hildegard Wasmuth-Fries, Ludwigshafen [HWF] (A) (26)
              Manfred Weber, Frankfurt [MW1] (A) (28)
              Priv.-Doz. Dr. Burghard Weiss, Lübeck [BW2] (A) (02)
              Prof. Dr. Klaus Winter, Berlin [KW] (A) (essay neutrino physics)
              Dr. Achim Wixforth, Munich [AW1] (A) (20)
              Dr. Steffen Wolf, Berkeley, USA [SW] (A) (16)
              Priv.-Doz. Dr. Jochen Wosnitza, Karlsruhe [JW] (A) (23 essay organic superconductors)
              Priv.-Doz. Dr. Jörg Zegenhagen, Stuttgart [JZ3] (A) (21 essay surface reconstructions)
              Dr. Kai Zuber, Dortmund [KZ] (A) (19)
              Dr. Werner Zwerger, Munich [WZ] (A) (20)

              Dr. Ulrich Kilian (responsible)
              Christine Weber

              Priv.-Doz. Dr. Dieter Hoffmann, Berlin

              The author's abbreviation is in square brackets, the number in round brackets is the subject area number, a list of subject areas can be found in the foreword.

              Prof. Dr. Klaus Andres, Garching [KA] (A) (10)
              Markus Aspelmeyer, Munich [MA1] (A) (20)
              Dr. Katja Bammel, Cagliari, I [KB2] (A) (13)
              Doz. Hans-Georg Bartel, Berlin [HGB] (A) (02)
              Steffen Bauer, Karlsruhe [SB2] (A) (20, 22)
              Dr. Günther Beikert, Viernheim [GB1] (A) (04, 10, 25)
              Prof. Dr. Hans Berckhemer, Frankfurt [HB1] (A, B) (29 Essay Seismology)
              Dr. Werner Biberacher, Garching [WB] (B) (20)
              Prof. Tamás S. Biró, Budapest [TB2] (A) (15)
              Prof. Dr. Helmut Bokemeyer, Darmstadt [HB2] (A, B) (18)
              Dr. Thomas Bührke, Leimen [TB] (A) (32)
              Jochen Büttner, Berlin [JB] (A) (02)
              Dr. Matthias Delbrück, Dossenheim [MD] (A) (12, 24, 29)
              Prof. Dr. Martin Dressel, Stuttgart (A) (essay spin density waves)
              Dr. Michael Eckert, Munich [ME] (A) (02)
              Dr. Dietrich Einzel, Garching (A) (essay superconductivity and superfluidity)
              Dr. Wolfgang Eisenberg, Leipzig [WE] (A) (15)
              Dr. Frank Eisenhaber, Vienna [FE] (A) (27)
              Dr. Roger Erb, Kassel [RE1] (A) (33)
              Dr. Angelika Fallert-Müller, Groß-Zimmer [AFM] (A) (16, 26)
              Stephan Fichtner, Heidelberg [SF] (A) (31)
              Dr. Thomas Filk, Freiburg [TF3] (A) (10, 15)
              Natalie Fischer, Walldorf [NF] (A) (32)
              Dr. Thomas Fuhrmann, Mannheim [TF1] (A) (14)
              Christian Fulda, Hanover [CF] (A) (07)
              Frank Gabler, Frankfurt [FG1] (A) (22)
              Dr. Harald Genz, Darmstadt [HG1] (A) (18)
              Prof. Dr. Henning Genz, Karlsruhe [HG2] (A) (Essays Symmetry and Vacuum)
              Dr. Michael Gerding, Potsdam [MG2] (A) (13)
              Andrea Greiner, Heidelberg [AG1] (A) (06)
              Uwe Grigoleit, Weinheim [UG] (A) (13)
              Gunther Hadwich, Munich [GH] (A) (20)
              Dr. Andreas Heilmann, Halle [AH1] (A) (20, 21)
              Carsten Heinisch, Kaiserslautern [CH] (A) (03)
              Dr. Marc Hemberger, Heidelberg [MH2] (A) (19)
              Dr. Sascha Hilgenfeldt, Cambridge, USA (A) (essay sonoluminescence)
              Dr. Hermann Hinsch, Heidelberg [HH2] (A) (22)
              Priv.-Doz. Dr. Dieter Hoffmann, Berlin [DH2] (A, B) (02)
              Dr. Gert Jacobi, Hamburg [GJ] (B) (09)
              Renate Jerecic, Heidelberg [RJ] (A) (28)
              Prof. Dr. Josef Kallrath, Ludwigshafen [JK] (A) (04)
              Priv.-Doz. Dr. Claus Kiefer, Freiburg [CK] (A) (14, 15)
              Richard Kilian, Wiesbaden [RK3] (22)
              Dr. Ulrich Kilian, Heidelberg [UK] (A) (19)
              Thomas Kluge, Jülich [TK] (A) (20)
              Dr. Achim Knoll, Karlsruhe [AK1] (A) (20)
              Dr. Alexei Kojevnikov, College Park, USA [AK3] (A) (02)
              Dr. Bernd Krause, Munich [BK1] (A) (19)
              Dr. Gero Kube, Mainz [GK] (A) (18)
              Ralph Kühnle, Heidelberg [RK1] (A) (05)
              Volker Lauff, Magdeburg [VL] (A) (04)
              Dr. Anton Lerf, Garching [AL1] (A) (23)
              Dr. Detlef Lohse, Twente, NL (A) (essay sonoluminescence)
              Priv.-Doz. Dr. Axel Lorke, Munich [AL] (A) (20)
              Prof. Dr. Jan Louis, Halle (A) (essay string theory)
              Dr. Andreas Markwitz, Lower Hutt, NZ [AM1] (A) (21)
              Holger Mathiszik, Celle [HM3] (A) (29)
              Dr. Dirk Metzger, Mannheim [DM] (A) (07)
              Dr. Rudi Michalak, Dresden [RM1] (A) (23 essay low temperature physics)
              Günter Milde, Dresden [GM1] (A) (12)
              Helmut Milde, Dresden [HM1] (A) (09)
              Marita Milde, Dresden [MM2] (A) (12)
              Prof. Dr. Andreas Müller, Trier [AM2] (A) (33)
              Prof. Dr. Karl Otto Münnich, Heidelberg (A) (Essay Environmental Physics)
              Dr. Nikolaus Nestle, Leipzig [NN] (A, B) (05, 20)
              Dr. Thomas Otto, Geneva [TO] (A) (06)
              Priv.-Doz. Dr. Ulrich Parlitz, Göttingen [UP1] (A) (11)
              Christof Pflumm, Karlsruhe [CP] (A) (06, 08)
              Dr. Oliver Probst, Monterrey, Mexico [OP] (A) (30)
              Dr. Roland Andreas Puntigam, Munich [RAP] (A) (14)
              Dr. Gunnar Radons, Mannheim [GR1] (A) (01, 02, 32)
              Dr. Max Rauner, Weinheim [MR3] (A) (15)
              Robert Raussendorf, Munich [RR1] (A) (19)
              Ingrid Reiser, Manhattan, USA [IR] (A) (16)
              Dr. Uwe Renner, Leipzig [UR] (A) (10)
              Dr. Ursula Resch-Esser, Berlin [URE] (A) (21)
              Dr. Peter Oliver Roll, Ingelheim [OR1] (A, B) (15)
              Hans-Jörg Rutsch, Walldorf [HJR] (A) (29)
              Rolf Sauermost, Waldkirch [RS1] (A) (02)
              Matthias Schemmel, Berlin [MS4] (A) (02)
              Prof. Dr. Erhard Scholz, Wuppertal [ES] (A) (02)
              Dr. Martin Schön, Konstanz [MS] (A) (14 essay special theory of relativity)
              Dr. Erwin Schuberth, Garching [ES4] (A) (23)
              Jörg Schuler, Taunusstein [JS1] (A) (06, 08)
              Dr. Joachim Schüller, Dossenheim [JS2] (A) (10)
              Richard Schwalbach, Mainz [RS2] (A) (17)
              Prof. Dr. Klaus Stierstadt, Munich [KS] (B)
              Dr. Siegmund Stintzing, Munich [SS1] (A) (22)
              Dr. Berthold Suchan, Giessen [BS] (A) (Essay Philosophy of Science)
              Cornelius Suchy, Brussels [CS2] (A) (20)
              Dr. Volker Theileis, Munich [VT] (A) (20)
              Prof. Dr. Stefan Theisen, Munich (A) (essay string theory)
              Dr. Annette Vogt, Berlin [AV] (A) (02)
              Dr. Thomas Volkmann, Cologne [TV] (A) (20)
              Rolf vom Stein, Cologne [RVS] (A) (29)
              Dr. Patrick Voss-de Haan, Mainz [PVDH] (A) (17)
              Dr. Thomas Wagner, Heidelberg [TW2] (A) (29)
              Manfred Weber, Frankfurt [MW1] (A) (28)
              Dr. Martin Werner, Hamburg [MW] (A) (29)
              Dr. Achim Wixforth, Munich [AW1] (A) (20)
              Dr. Steffen Wolf, Berkeley, USA [SW] (A) (16)
              Dr. Stefan L. Wolff, Munich [SW1] (A) (02)
              Priv.-Doz. Dr. Jochen Wosnitza, Karlsruhe [JW] (A) (23)
              Dr. Kai Zuber, Dortmund [KZ] (A) (19)
              Dr. Werner Zwerger, Munich [WZ] (A) (20)

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