Chemistry

Adrenal gland

Adrenal gland


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Stress

The definition of stress today includes all short-term or long-term stressful situations that affect the body. Real or anticipated threats that suddenly appear solve the so-called in the body fight-or-flightSyndrome, in which the hormones of the adrenal medulla are released in a fraction of a second. The catecholamines promote the release of fatty acids which, together with the increased sugar level, optimally supply the muscles with energy. Will thefight-or-flightHowever, if the reaction is often called up over a long period of time in idle mode, it leads to high blood pressure, atherosclerosis and ultimately possibly even to a heart attack, as more and more lipids are deposited on the inner vessel walls over the years.

The body reacts to constant stress, i.e. long-term physical and emotional stressful situations (illness, pain, loneliness, work overload) with increased production and release of glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoids have an anti-inflammatory effect and above all influence the carbohydrate and protein metabolism. In contrast to the release of the adrenal medulla hormones, the glucocorticoid release takes longer because the signal for the release of the glucocorticoid hormones is passed on from the pituitary to the adrenal cortex via acetylcholine.

Note
The longer-term release of adrenaline leads to a gradual transition of thefight-or-flightSyndrome into a chronic stress state, because adrenaline acts on the hypothalamus, which acts on the pituitary gland through the corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) and increases the release of acetylcholine. Acetylcholine stimulates the secretion of glucocorticoid through the adrenal cortex.



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